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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (49):
1

Glucose in your blood is an example of a ________ in the human body

Chemical

2

Neurons are an example of a_________ in the human body

Cell

3

Blood is considered to be _________ tissue

Connective

4

Which of the following tissue types are found in the bladder

Connective, epithelial, muscle, nervous

I.e all of the above

5

Communication is the main function of the ________ system.

Endocrine

6

Plasma:

Is extra cellular fluid found within the circulatory system

7

Which of the following is an example of negative feed back

~if body temperature increases above normal thermoreceptors in the hypothalamus send signals to the brain. Certain areas of the brain then send signals to the nerves that control the sweat glands and blood vessels near the surface of the skin to make the sweat rate increase and surface blood vessels increase in diameter, which reduces body temperature.

~if blood pressure increases above normal, baroreceptors in major arteries detect the change and send signals to the brain. Certain areas of the brain then send signals to the nerves that control the heart and blood vessels, to make the heart beat slower and the blood vessels increase in diameter, which reduces the blood pressure.

8

Which of the following statements about nuclei is correct

The nucleus contains our genetic code or dna

9

The _____ contains ribosomes that synthesis proteins that will be secreted from the cell

Rough endoplasmic reticulum

10

_______ codes for amino acids and is read by ribosomes, while_______ brings amino acids to the ribosomes.

mRNA : tRNA

11

Adipocytes or fat cells have a lot of____ to synthesize triglycerides that get stored there.

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

12

The beta cells in your pancreas make insulin, which is a peptide hormone that regulates blood glucose levels. Insulin is made in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and wrapped in a membrane by the smooth endoplasmic reticulum. It is then sent to the_________to be processed and packaged into secretory vesicles to be released when blood glucose levels increase.

Golgi complex

13

A bacterial cell phagocytized by a macrophage would fuse with a _______ inside macrophage to be digested by hydrologic enzymes.

Lysosome

14

Hydrogen peroxide, H2O2, is a byproduct of aerobic respiration. Knowing this, you would expect cells that do a lot of aerobic respiration to have a lot of _________ to convert the hydrogen peroxide back to water and oxygen.

Peroxisomes

15


The _________ is where the majority of ATP is produced in a cell.

Mitochondria

16


Which of the following cytoskeletal elements do not rearrange themselves and are therefore considered to be permanent?

Intermediate filaments

17



Flagella and cilia are made up of ______, which can rearrange and therefore cause movement.

Microtubules

18


Cardiomyocytes in the heart contain all there major types of cell junctions. _______ that act like spot rivets to keep the cells from being pulled apart when the heart fills with blood. __________ that allow ions like sodium and calcium to flow directly from cell to cell allowing the heart to contract as a unit. ________ that prevent blood from leaking between the cells.

Desmosomes : Gap junction : tight junctions

19



______ groups are the functional groups found on proteins that contain nitrogen

Amino

20



The synthesis of lactose in the mammary glands from glucose and galactose is an example of a __________ reaction where _______ is used and _______ is released

Dehydration synthesis : energy : water

21



Which of the following polysaccharides is not digested in our small intestine, because we do not produce enzymes capable of breaking the covalent bonds between the glucose molecules?

Cellulose

22



Our bodies use _______ for energy storage because they are energy dense and do not require water to store.

Triglycerides

23



________ like testosterone and estrogen are lipids made up of carbon rings and act as signaling molecules.

Steroids

24


The 20 different amino acids used to make proteins have different ________ .

Side chains

25

Which of the following is a type of protein?

Sucrase, the enzyme that breaks down sucrose.
The antibodies produced by our B cells in response to infection.
Ferritin that binds and stores iron in the liver.
Aquaporins that serve as channels for water to move through the plasma membrane.

26

When a protein denatures:

Weak non-covalent interactions like hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces are disrupted.

The protein unfolds losing its quaternary and tertiary structure.

27

Enzymes:

decrease the amount of energy needed for a chemical reaction to occur.

tend to have only a few or a single substrate.

catalyze a chemical reaction without being consumed in the process.

bind to the substrate forming an enzyme substrate complex before forming the product.

28

Which of the following nucleic acids is double stranded

DNA

29

Glycolysis is a series of enzymatic reactions that breaks one six carbon ________ into two three carbon _________.

Glucose : pyruvates

30

When your skeletal muscles undergo intense contractions, like when bench pressing 200 pounds, enough oxygen is not available for the electron transport chain to continue so glycolysis is the only way your muscles have to make ATP. In order for glycolysis to continue without oxygen _______ has to be converted to ______ .

Pyruvate : lactic acidosis

31

The Krebs cycle

occurs in the mitochondrial matrix.
requires oxygen.

yields 2 ATP per glucose molecule.

yields 6 NADHs per glucose molecule.

all of the above are true of the Krebs cycle.

32

The role of NAD and FAD in aerobic respiration is

To carry the high energy electrons and hydrogen released during glycolysis and the Krebs cycle to the electron transport chain.

33

The electron transport chain

occurs on the inner mitochondrial membrane.

is a series of proton pumps that use the energy from electrons to pump hydrogen ions from the mitochondrial matrix to the intermembrane space.

utilizes ATP synthase to make the vast majority of ATP for the cell.

ends when oxygen accepts two protons and two electrons and becomes water.

correct all of the above are correct.

34

Your cell can make ATP from which of the following molecules?

Glucose
Fructose
Amino acids
Fatty acids

35

The lipid bilayer that forms the foundation of our plasma membranes is made by amphipathic___________.

Phospholipids

36



The plasma membrane is selectively permeable. Which of the following substances will freely cross the plasma membrane via passive diffusion?

Oxygen

37

_______ increases the fluidity and stability of the plasma membrane.

Cholesterol

38

Which of the following is NOT a type of protein found in or associated with the plasma membrane?

Phospholipids

39

A (n) ______ has a negative charge because it has _____ an electron.

Anion : accepted

40

Potassium:

Can move down its electrochemical gradient leak channels when cells are at rest

41



When you are dehydrated, the osmolarity of your plasma ________ and water _______ your red blood cells, causing them to _________.

Increases : leaves : shrink

42

Which of the following would increase the diffusion rate of oxygen into your lungs?

Breathing through an oxygen mask that is delivering oxygen enriched air.

43

The resting membrane potential of most of our cells is _____ because:

70mV : there are more anions in intracellular fluid than in extracellular fluid.

44

If sodium channels open on the plasma membrane, sodium will:

Diffuse into the cell

Move down it’s electrochemical gradient

45

For glucose to enter hepatocytes (liver cells), glucose needs to be in higher concentration in extracellular fluid than intracellular fluid. Therefore glucose is moving by _________ to enter hepatocytes.
incorrect primary active transport

Facilitated diffusion

46

The sodium potassium pump:

is a primary active transporter that uses one molecule of ATP to pump three sodium out of cells and two potassium into cells.

47


The calcium ATPase present on the sarcoplasmic reticulum of our skeletal muscle fibers directly uses ATP to pump calcium out of the cytoplasm into the sarcoplasmic reticulum against calcium's electrochemical gradient. Therefore calcium is moving by __________ across the sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal muscle fibers.

Primary active transport

48

On the apical membrane of proximal tubule cells in our nephrons, glucose moves up its concentration gradient as it enters the cell from the lumen of the nephron. If the chemical ouabain, which shuts down sodium potassium pumps, is present glucose is no longer transported across the apical membrane because the sodium gradient is disrupted and is excreted in the urine. Therefore glucose is moving by __________ across the apical membrane of proximal tubule cells.

Secondary active transport

49


Insulin is a peptide hormone that is packaged into secretory vesicles by beta cells in the pancreas. When blood glucose levels increase, beta cells in the pancreas release insulin by __________ in order to cause insulin sensitive cells to absorb glucose from the bloodstream

Exocytosis