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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (21):
1

How did the Greeks explore the ocean?

Using the moon and tides

2

Who was Eratosthenes of Cyrene?

- invented geography + longitude and latitude
- calculated tilt of earth on axis
- calculated earths circumference

3

Define longitude and latitude

A coordinate system which indicates a location on earth

4

What was the library of Alexandria?

A giant Egyptian library which was dedicated to the 9 goddesses of art.

5

What did Ptolemy do?

Used a grid system to plot longitude and latitude

6

What did Hipparchus do?

Discovered the equinoxes and heliocentrism (earth revolves around sun)

7

Who were the Polynesians?

Austronesians who traveled and populated Polynesia

8

How did the Polynesians migrate?

- created star structure to form a compass
- observing waves and cloud formations

9

What did the Polynesians accomplish?

- colonized every habitable island in a triangular region roughly twice the size of the United states

10

What did Christopher Columbus do?

Made 4 voyages across the Atlantic ocean in an effort to find a new route to the East Indies, found America instead

11

What did Ferdindand Magellan do?

- searched for Spice Islands
- left with 5 ships, came back with 2
- first circumnavigation of earth
- measured length of a latitude degree

12

What did John Harrison create?

A chronometer (high accuracy clock)

13

What were the accomplishments of Captain James Cook's three voyages?

- circumnavigated globe
- charted many islands, first European to visit Hawaii
- explored Antarctic ocean
- made ocean observations (temp, wind, currents)

14

What did Benjamin Franklin chart?

Published first chart of Gulf Stream

15

What are the five oceans?

- Pacific
- Atlantic
- Indian
- Arctic
- Southern

16

What is the HMS Challenger?

- Victorian era sea research expedition
- tested chemicals below deck, found out Bathybius Haeckelii was a chemical, and not a life form
- found major elements in the water
- found 5000 new species

17

Who is Fridtjof Nansen

Explored Antarctica and glaciers

18

What is an echo sounder?

A tool used to measure ocean depths

19

What did the Meteor Expedition accomplish?

- measured almost 70,000 depth soundings
- South Atlantic sea floor confirmed to be not featureless

20

What are some major oceanographic institutions?

- Marine Biological Association
- Scripps Institution of Oceanography
- Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute

21

What do ocean floor drilling programs accomplish?

- sample earth's crust
Ex.
- Deep Sea Drilling Program
- Ocean Drilling Program
- Integrated Ocean Drilling Program