Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (21):
How did the Greeks explore the ocean?
Using the moon and tides
Who was Eratosthenes of Cyrene?
- invented geography + longitude and latitude
- calculated tilt of earth on axis
- calculated earths circumference
Define longitude and latitude
A coordinate system which indicates a location on earth
What was the library of Alexandria?
A giant Egyptian library which was dedicated to the 9 goddesses of art.
What did Ptolemy do?
Used a grid system to plot longitude and latitude
What did Hipparchus do?
Discovered the equinoxes and heliocentrism (earth revolves around sun)
Who were the Polynesians?
Austronesians who traveled and populated Polynesia
How did the Polynesians migrate?
- created star structure to form a compass
- observing waves and cloud formations
What did the Polynesians accomplish?
- colonized every habitable island in a triangular region roughly twice the size of the United states
What did Christopher Columbus do?
Made 4 voyages across the Atlantic ocean in an effort to find a new route to the East Indies, found America instead
What did Ferdindand Magellan do?
- searched for Spice Islands
- left with 5 ships, came back with 2
- first circumnavigation of earth
- measured length of a latitude degree
What did John Harrison create?
A chronometer (high accuracy clock)
What were the accomplishments of Captain James Cook's three voyages?
- circumnavigated globe
- charted many islands, first European to visit Hawaii
- explored Antarctic ocean
- made ocean observations (temp, wind, currents)
What did Benjamin Franklin chart?
Published first chart of Gulf Stream
What are the five oceans?
What is the HMS Challenger?
- Victorian era sea research expedition
- tested chemicals below deck, found out Bathybius Haeckelii was a chemical, and not a life form
- found major elements in the water
- found 5000 new species
Who is Fridtjof Nansen
Explored Antarctica and glaciers
What is an echo sounder?
A tool used to measure ocean depths
What did the Meteor Expedition accomplish?
- measured almost 70,000 depth soundings
- South Atlantic sea floor confirmed to be not featureless
What are some major oceanographic institutions?
- Marine Biological Association
- Scripps Institution of Oceanography
- Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute