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Animal Physiology Final Exam > Exam 1 & 2 Material - MC Style > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 1 & 2 Material - MC Style Deck (159):
1

An example of chronic response to an animal’s environment would be which of the following?
a) Heart rate increase
b) Fatigue
c) Thicker hair coat
d) Shivering

Thicker hair coat

2

Which of the following correctly describes peristalsis?
-The main propulsive motility pattern in the GIT tract in which circular muscle contracts
and longitudinal muscle relaxes behind the bolus, while circular muscle relaxes and
longitudinal muscle contracts in front of the bolus.
-The only propulsive motility pattern in the GIT tract in which circular muscle contracts
and longitudinal muscle relaxes behind the bolus, while circular muscle relaxes and
longitudinal muscle contracts in front of the bolus.
-The main propulsive motility pattern in only the large intestine in which circular muscle
contracts and longitudinal muscle relaxes behind the bolus, while circular muscle relaxes
and longitudinal muscle contracts in front of the bolus.
-The main propulsive motility pattern in the GIT tract in which circular muscle relaxes
and longitudinal muscle contracts behind the bolus, while circular muscle contracts and
longitudinal muscle relaxes in front of the bolus.

The MAIN propulsive motility pattern in the GIT tract in which circular muscle contracts
and longitudinal muscle relaxes behind the bolus,

while circular muscle relaxes and
longitudinal muscle contracts in front of the bolus.

3

What type of glial cell is responsible for myelination of axons of neurons in the peripheral
nervous system.
a) Oligodrendricytes
b) Astrocytes
c) Microglial
d) Schwann

Schwann Cells

4

What are the four segments of vertebrate Gastrointestinal tracts?
a) Headgut, Foregut, Midgut, Hindgut
b) Headgut, thorgut, accessory organs, midgut
c) There are only two not four- foregut and hindgut
d) Mouth, stomach, accessory organs, anus

Headgut, Foregut, Midgut, and Hindgut.

5

What is the correct pairing of nervous system and its role:
a) Peripheral Nervous System- Brain and Spinal Cord
b) Autonomic nervous system- non-visceral organs with a voluntary aspect
c) Somatic Nervous system- Enteric, sympathetic and parasympathetic
d) Autonomic Nervous System- parasympathetic, sympathetic and enteric nervous system

Autonomic nervous system which includes the parasympathetic, sympathetic and enteric nervous system.

6

**What type of calcium channel releases calcium into the sarcoplasmic reticulum after depolarization of the membrane?
a) Voltage-gated dihydropyridine receptor
b) Voltage-gated ryanodine receptor
c) Ligand-gated ryanodine receptor
d) Stretch-gated channel

Voltage-gated ryanodine receptor

7

What type of neuron conducts messages/signals away from the central nervous system?
a) Afferent neurons
b) Interneurons
c) Efferent neurons
d) Sensory neurons

Efferent Neurons

8

Which is a characteristic of metabotropic chemical synapse?
a) Produce a metabolic change in the post-synaptic cell
b) Fast
c) Directly alter membrane permeability
d) Excitory and inhibitory effects

Produce a metabolic change in the post-synaptic cell

9

Which of the following is not one of the stomach regions of the horse?
a) cardiac
b) nonglandular
c) body
d) pyloric

Cardiac

10

Which section of the small intestine receives secretions from the pancreas and liver?
a) jejunum
b) ileum
c) duodenum
d) gallbladder

Duodenum

11

Which of the following correctly describes what molecules bind to skeletal muscle filaments?
a) Calcium binds to myosin and ATP binds to troponin on actin.
b) Calcium binds to troponin on actin and ATP binds to myosin.
c) Calcium binds to myosin and acetylcholine binds to troponin on actin.
d) Calcium binds to troponin on actin and acetylcholine binds to myosin.

Calcium binds to troponin on actin and ATP binds to myosin.

12

What gated channel is a neurotransmitter receptor an example of?
a) Voltage gated channels
b) Stretch gated channels
c) Ligand gated channels
d) Phosphorylation gated channels

LIGAND GATED

13

The rate of heat transfer is determined by all of the following EXCEPT:
a) Temperature gradient
b) Air speed
c) Shape of body parts
d) Moisture content of the air

Moisture content of the air

14

These junctions restrict the movement of water and dissolved substances between cells:
a) Tight junctions
b) Desmosomes
c) Gap Junctions
d) T-tubules

Tight junctions

15

Which of the following animal species is not ruminant?
a) Bison
b) Cows
c) Antelope
d) Swine

Swine

16

Which of the following answers about resting membrane potential is right?
a) +65 mV
b) +58 mV
c) -65 mV
d) -80 mV

-65mV

17

Which of the following answers about the criteria of neurotransmitter is wrong?
a) Must be present in the pre-synaptic terminal
b) Mechanism for removal doesn’t need to exist.
c) Neurotransmitter in extracellular fluid must elicit same response as the synaptic event
d) Released upon stimulation

Mechanism for removal doesn’t need to exist.

18

Sensation generally involves what part of the brain?
a) Pons
b) Cerebellum
c) Cerebral Cortex
d) Medulla

Cerebral Cortex

19

Name the regions of the spinal cord where the ganglion (synapse) is located for Parasympathetic
and Sympathetic nervous systems.
a) Thoracolumbar and Lumbar
b) Thoracolumbar and Craniosacral
c) Cervical and Craniosacral
d) Craniosacral and Thoracolumbar

Craniosacral and Thoracolumbar

20

Which of the following is not considered to be key criteria for a neurotransmitter?
a) Released upon stimulation (depolarization and calcium)
b) Neurotransmitter in extracellular fluid must elicit a different response than the synaptic event
c) Mechanism for removal must exist
d) Must be present in the pre-synaptic terminal

Neurotransmitter in extracellular fluid must elicit a different response than the synaptic event

21

Which of the following cannot pass through a plasma membrane freely?
a) Oxygen
b) Water
c) Sodium
d) Carbon Dioxide

Sodium

22

The type of gastrointestinal motility in which circular muscle creates areas of constriction and
dilation so that the digesta can be retained longer for absorptive purposes is referred as:
a) Adaptive relaxation
b) Segmentation
c) Retropulsion
d) Peristalsis

Segmentation

23

The key structural parts of a neuron include all of the following except:
a) Synapse
b) Cell Body
c) Axon
d) Axon Terminal

Synapse

24

Which of the following digestive organs is NOT found in the avian GI tract?
a. Salivary glands
b. Pancreas
c. Omasum
d. Cecum

Omasum

25

**Which muscle type does not display striation?
a. Skeletal
b. Smooth
c. Cardiac
d. Fast twitch

Smooth

26

Which digestive enzyme is NOT secreted by the pancreas?
a. Amylase
b. Trypsin
c. Chymotrypsin
d. Pepsin

Pepsin

27

**The parietal glands contain which of the following cells?
a) Mucus producing, parietal cells, chief cells
b) Mucus producing, G cells, parietal cells
c) G cells, chief cells, duct cells
d) Mucus producing, duct cells

Mucus producing, parietal cells, chief cells

28

**When smooth muscle contracts:
a) The heart beats
b) You can lift a pencil
c) Filaments turn pink
d) It goes from being spindle shaped to globular

It goes from being spindle-shaped to globular

29

Which of the following is an accessory organ?
a) Pancreas
b) Ileum
c) Reticulum
d) Pharynx

Pancreas

30

This type of glandular tissue, found in the pancreas, is responsible for endocrine secretions.
A. Acinar cells
B. Duct cells
C. Islet cells
D. Pancreatic cells

Islet cells

31

Which of the following describes an Ionotropic chemical synapse?
A. Modulation of neuronal function
B. Slow
C. Produce metabolic change in the post-synaptic cell
D. Directly alter membrane permeability to ions

Directly alter membrane permeability to ions

32

This system is composed of a network of neurons entirely in the walls of the gut ______.
A. Enteric nervous system
B. Central nervous system
C. Autonomic nervous system
D. Sympathetic nervous system

Enteric Nervous System

33

**Cells are separated by:
A. Synaptic Cleft
B. Axon
C. Dendrite
D. Neurotransmitters

Synaptic Cleft

34

Which is not true concerning the Enteric Nervous System:
A. Controls Gut Motility
B. Modulated by Sympathetic and Parasympathetic
C. Contains submucosal plexus and myenteric plexus
D. Always excitory

Always excitory

35

Which of the following receptors is defined by sensitive touch and being shallow:
A. Merkel Disk
B. Ruffini Ending
C. Meissner's Corpuscle
D. Pascinian Corpuscle

Meissner's corpuscle

36

Which of the following is a part of the GI midgut?
a. Rumen
b. Pharynx
c. Small intestine
d. Large intestine

Small Intestine

37

Which of the following is not a role of saliva in ruminants?
a. A buffer in the rumen
b. Lubricates the walls of the small intestine
c. Contains urea for microbial protein synthesis
d. Provides fluid to rumen

Lubricates the walls of the small intestine

38

What is the function of the nucleolus?
a. rRNA synthesis
b. Lipid synthesis
c. Formation of ribosomal subunits

rRNA synthesis AND Formation of ribosomal subunits

39

Why are Secondary Messengers important?
a. Allow very low concentrations of a signal to elicit a large cellular response
b. Used for G-protein linked receptors and enzyme-linked receptors
c. Play role in the regulation of metabolism
d. All of the above.

All of the above

40

What kind of mastication do Herbivores use?
a. Vertical motion only
b. Vertical and lateral motion
c. Lateral motion only
d. None of the above

Vertical and Lateral motion

41

During muscle contraction,
a. The individual filaments shorten, leading to muscle contraction.
b. The sarcomere shortens, increasing the degree of overlap between the thick and thin
filaments.
c. The A Band gets shorter.
d. The H zone and I band stay the same.

The sarcomere shortens, increasing the degree of overlap between the thick and thin
filaments.

42

What is not a type of Glial cell?
a) Schwaan Cells
b) Astrocytes
c) Leukocytes
d) Oligodendricytes

Leukocytes

43

What is a factor (s) that controls action potential velocity?
a) Axon diameter
b) Temperature
c) Myelination
d) All of the above

All of the above

44

What is a characteristic of monocular vision?
a) Eyes on the front of the head
b) Good peripheral vision
c) Used by predators
d) Good depth perception

Good peripheral vision

45

Which of the following is a structural class of membrane proteins?
a) Enzymes
b) Channels
c) Peripheral proteins
d) Receptors

Peripheral proteins

46

Which of the following ruminant organs does not correspond correctly to its function or
structure?
a) Reticulum: honeycomb structure
b) Omasum: grinding particles
c) Abomasum: glandular stomach
d) Rumen: same as monogastric stomach

Rumen: same as monogastric stomach

47

Which of the following is not a secondary messenger as discussed in the metabolism lecture?
a) cAMP
b) water
c) cGMP
d) diacylglycerol “DAG”

Water

48

Which of the following is not part of the foregut?
a) Pharynx
b) Esophagus
c) Stomach
d) Omasum

Pharynx

49

Which of the following is not a ruminant
a) Sheep
b) Cow
c) Giraffe
d) Lion

Lion

50

Which of the following is not a taste sensation
a) Salty
b) Spicy
c) Sweet
d) Sour

Spicy

51

A feed high in protein is:
a) Hay
b) Molasses
c) Corn
d) Soybean meal

Soybean meal

52

Which of the following phrases BEST describe the shape of an herbivore’s molars:
a) hard molars
b) flat molars
c) sharp molars
d) no molars

Flat Molars

53

Peristalsis:
a) Consists of long, sweeping contractions
b) By definition mixes digesta together
c) Originates in the esophagus
d) Affects circular muscle only

By definition mixes digesta together

54

Which of the following is not a form of heat transfer?
a) Conduction
b) Convention
c) Convection
d) Evaporation

Convention

55

A benefit of monocular vision is:
a) Excellent depth perception
b) Sharp night vision
c) Ability to see all colors
d) Increased field of view

Increased field of view

56

Which Nervous System is associated with “fight or flight”?
a) Sympathetic Nervous System
b) Parasympathetic Nervous System
c) Somatic Nervous System
d) Sensory Nervous System

Sympathetic Nervous System

57

Which if the following is an example of an exocrine gland?
a) Sweat gland
b) Pituitary gland
c) Hypothalamus gland
d) Thyroid gland

Sweat gland

58

Which of the following uses active transport?
a) Amino Acids
b) Oxygen
c) Neither A nor B
d) Both A and B

Amino acids

59

Where are peptide neurotransmitters made in the neuron?
a) Axon
b) Axon terminal
c) Cell body (soma)
d) Dendrites

Cell body (soma)

60

Which one correctly identifies metabolic rate?
a. Rate at which animals make energy
b. Rate at which animals consume energy
c. Measurement of animals body size to heat ratio
d. Amount of average physical activity achieved in a single day

Rate at which animals consume energy

61

Which statement incorrectly identifies with roles of saliva in ruminants?
a. Acts as a buffer in the rumen
b. Provides fluid to the rumen
c. Contains urea-source of nitrogen for microbial synthesis
d. Contains low amount of bicarbonate

Contains low amount of bicarbonate

62

Which of the following correctly names 5 organelles in the endomembrane system of a cell?
a. Nucleus, Nucleolus, golgi apparatus, mitochondrian, lysosome
b. Nucleolous, golgi apparatus, mitochondrian, ribosomes, plasma membrane
c. Nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, plasma membranes
d. Nucleus, Nucleolous, golgi apparatus, cytoskelton, desmosomes

Nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, plasma membranes

63

Mammalians lack the enzyme to digest
a) β [1-4] linkages
b) α [1-4] linkages
c) α [1-6] linkages
d) β [1-6] linkages

β [1-4] linkages

64

Peptide neurotransmitters are made in the _______, but released into the axon terminal:
a) dendrite
b) vesicles
c) axon hillock
d) cell body (soma)

Cell body (soma)

65

**Which is true about ionotropic synapses?
a) Ach binds to a membrane channel and decreases permeability to both Na and K
b) Ach bind to a membrane channel and decreases permeability to Na while increasing
permeability to Na
c) Ach bind to a membrane channel and decreases permeability to K while increasing
permeability to Na
d) Ach binds to a membrane channel and increases permeability to both Na and K

Ach binds to a membrane channel and increases permeability to both Na and K

66

What is the difference between an endocrine and an exocrine gland?
a) An endocrine gland releases tears and an exocrine gland releases hormones.
b) An exocrine gland releases things anywhere but the blood and an endocrine gland
releases items into the blood.
c) An endocrine gland releases things anywhere but the blood and an exocrine gland
releases items into the blood.
d) They are the same.

An exocrine gland releases things anywhere but the blood and an endocrine gland releases items into the blood.

67

Grey matter and white matter are terms associated with which system?
a) Gastrointestinal tract
b) Musculature
c) Respiratory Systems
d) Central Nervous System

Central Nervous System

68

**The skeletal muscle is the only type of muscle regulated by which section of the autonomic
nervous system?
a) Sympathetic
b) Parasympathetic
c) It is not regulated by the autonomic nervous system
d) It is regulated by both sections.

Sympathetic

69

What is the name of the contraction that is involved with eructation and which direction does the contraction travel?
A) Primary contraction; Clockwise
B) Secondary contraction; Clockwise
C) Secondary contraction; Counterclockwise
D) Primary contraction; Counterclockwise

Secondary contraction; Counterclockwise

70

What is the name of the calcium receptors found in the T-tubules of a muscle fiber?
A) DHPR
B) RyR
C) cAMP
D) ionic receptors

DHPR

71

Which environmental condition can be found in both the internal environment and external
environment?
A) Atmospheric Pressure
B) Water Saline Concentration
C) Humidity
D) Temperature

Temperature

72

Which of the following is correct regarding the function of efferent neurons?
a. Conduct signals away from the CNS
b. Conduct signals towards the CNS
c. Conduct signals towards the Peripheral NS
d. Conduct signals away from the Parasympathetic
NS

Conduct signals away from the CNS

73

Which of the following muscle types are involved in voluntary movements that are regulated by
the somatic nervous system?
a. Smooth muscle
b. Cardiac muscle
c. Skeletal muscle
d. None of the above

Skeletal muscle

74

Which of the following methods of heat transfer is characterized by transferring heat through a
substance due to visible movement of the substance?
a. Conduction
b. Radiation
c. Evaporation
d. Convection

Convection

75

What makes a phospholipid amphipathic?
a) It contains a polar head and two non-polar tails.
b) The membrane is thermodynamically stable.
c) It can have different fatty acid tails.
d) It forms a bilayer.

It contains a polar head and two non-polar tails.

76

Which of the following is true regarding osmosis?
a) It is a form of active transport.
b) It moves from low to high osmotic pressure.
c) It moves from low to high water concentrations.
d) It is the diffusion of ions.

It moves from low to high osmotic pressure.

77

**Which of the following can increase the velocity of an action potential?
a) A small axon diameter
b) A cold temperature
c) A lot of myelination
d) Hyperpolarization

A lot of myelination

78

What type of linkages do starch and glucose have respectively?
a) β[1-4], α[1-4]
b) α[1-4], β[1-4]
c) α[1-6], α[1-4]
d) β[1-4], α[1-6]

STARCH:α[1-4],
GLUCOSE: β[1-4]

79

****What processes involve aerobic (oxygen requiring) conditions?
a) glycolysis, Kreb’s (citric acid) cycle, electron transport, oxidative phosphorylation
b) glycolysis, lactic acid production
c) glycolysis, electron transport,
d) lactic acid production, oxidative phosphorylation

Glycolysis, Kreb’s (citric acid) cycle, electron transport, oxidative phosphorylation ?

80

What description correctly matches the definition of grey matter in the central nervous system?
a) tracts of myelinated axons
b) cell bodies, synapses, unmyelinated axons
c) bundle of myelinated axons
d) groups of nerve cell bodies

Cell bodies, synapses, unmyelinated axons

81

Which of the following is NOT one of the functions of the endocrine system?
a) Reproductive
b) Growth
c) Structural
d) Digestive

Structural

82

What is responsible for directing food to the GIT?
a) Esophagus
b) Pharynx
c) Trachea
d) Epiglottis

Epiglottis

83

Which of the following is part of the brainstem?
a) Thalamus
b) Medulla
c) Cerebellum
d) Hypothalamus

Medulla

84

**Which of the following is the receptor for a Type 2 synapse?
a) Voltage gated Na+channel
b) Ligand gated Na+/K+ channel
c) Voltage gated Cl- channel
d) Ligand gated Cl- channel

Ligand gated Cl- channel

85

Which ion/solute can freely cross through the plasma membrane?
a) Glucose
b) Oxygen (O2)
c) Amino Acids
d) Sodium (Na+)

Oxygen (O2)

86

Which of the following is the type of starch that can be digested by ruminants but not by
nonruminants?
a) β(1,4)
b) β(1,6)
c) α(1,4)
d) α(1,6)

β(1,4) linkages

87

The study of origin can be best described as
a. The study of the reasons behind a mechanism
b. The study of evolutionary origins

Mechanism AND Origin

88

Which of the following determines the rate of diffusion through a membrane?
a. Concentration gradient
b. Distance between the two different concentrations

Concentration gradient AND the distance between the two different concentrations

89

Which of the following is an example of an acute response?
a. Thicker hair coat
b. Improved body composition (leaner muscle)
c. More efficient oxygen metabolism
d. Shivering

Shivering

90

Which of the following is a group of specialized cells?
a) Organ
b) Tissue
c) System
d) Gland

Tissue

91

Which of the following is NOT a key feature of facilitated diffusion?
a) Solutes move in the direction of electrochemical equilibrium
b) Faster than simple diffusion for these solutes
c) Involves reversible binding with transporter protein
d) Requires ATP

Requires ATP

92

Which of the following is NOT one of the 3 pairs of salivary glands in the mammal mouth?
a) Parotid
b) Sublingual
c) Subincisor
d) Submandibular

Subincisor

93

Which of the following parts of a cell is not part of the endomembrane system?
a) Endoplasmic reticulum
b) Mitochondria
c) Golgi apparatus
d) Nucleus

Mitochondria

94

What kind of channel does lidocaine “block”?
a) Ligand gated channel
b) Voltage gated potassium channel
c) Voltage gated sodium channel
d) Voltage gated calcium channel

Voltage gated sodium channel

95

Which type of heat transfer can only involve the loss of heat
a) Evaporation
b) Radiation
c) Convection
d) Conduction

Evaporation

96

Which of these phases is not a gastric acid secretion phase?
a) Cephalic phase
b) Gastric phase
c) Pepsin phase
d) Intestinal phase

Pepsin phase

97

**What is the name of the vesicle stored at the active site or the interior of the axon terminal? What does it contain?
a) Neuro-vesicle, neurons
b) Quantal packet, neurotransmitters
c) Quantal packet, sodium
d) Calcium packet, calcium

Quantal packet, neurotransmitters

98

**How is muscle classified?
a) Based on the type of myosin ATPase (ex: slow, fast)
b) By how quickly actin can bind ATP
c) By the length of contraction
d) Based on the amount of Ca2+ channels in it

Based on the type of myosin ATPase (ex: slow, fast)

99

Saliva secretion is controlled by:
a) Amount of digesta
b) Autonomic nervous system
c) Type of diet
d) Respiratory system

Autonomic nervous system

100

What is the rate at which animals consume energy?
a) Metabolic
b) Metatropic
c) Respiratory
d) None or the above

Metabolic

101

A group of nerve cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system is
a) Grouping
b) Mucosa
c) Ganglion
d) All the above

Ganglion

102

Which of the following is NOT a key role of saliva?
a) Acts as a buffer in the rumen
b) Provides urea
c) Provides fluid to the rumen
d) It absorbs the nutrients

It absorbs the nutrients

103

Which of the following is NOT a factor that controls action potential velocity (speed)?
a) Myelination
b) Temperature
c) Time
d) Axon diameter

Time

104

Which of the following senses require both ionotropic and metabotrophic mechanisms?
a) Smell
b) Taste
c) Touch
d) Vision

Taste

105

Which of the following is responsible for mechanical digestion of food?
a. Esophagus
b. Rumen
c. Mouth
d. Colon

Mouth

106

Which pancreatic enzyme is released into the lumen to break down amino acid chains?
a. Trypsin
b. Bile
c. Secretin
d. Trypsinogen

Trypsinogen

107

Which is NOT a characteristic of Ionotropic synapses?
a. Fast
b. Only excitatory
c. Directly alters membrane potential
d. Signal transduction

Only excitatory

108

There are 3 pairs of salivary glands in non-ruminant animals. Choose the statement that is false:
a.) Parotid glands secrete serous cells acinar cells. b.) The (Sub)mandibular glands secrete mucous acinar cells.
c.) Parotid glands secrete mucous acinar cells.
d.) The (Sub)mandibular glands secrete serous acinar cells.

Parotid glands secrete mucous acinar cells.

109

Which of the following are criteria of a neurotransmitter?
a.) Must be present in the pre-synaptic terminal.
b.) Released upon stimulation.
c.) Mechanism for removal must exist.
d.) All of the above.

All of the above.

110

The primary mixing contractions of the ruminant GI tract move in the direction of:
a.) Cranial to caudal in the dorsal and ventral sacs. b.) Proximal to distal in the dorsal and ventral sacs.
c.) Cranial to dorsal in the proximal to ventral sacs. d.) Doral to caudal in the ventral to proximal sacs.

Cranial to caudal in the dorsal and ventral sacs.

111

Which of the following is not a component of the plasma membrane?
a) Cholesterol
b) Protein
c) Pepsinogens
d) Phospholipids

Pepsinogens

112

Which is an example of skeletal motality?
a) Chewing
b) Mixing
c) Grinding
d) Swallowing

Chewing

113

What does saliva contain that is a source of nitrogen for microbial protein synthesis?
a) Urea
b) Calcium
c) Phosphorus
d) Amylase

Urea

114

Which is not a characteristic of Ionotropic chemical synapses?
a) Excitory and inhibitory effects
b) Fast
c) Modulation of neural function
d) Directly alter membrane permeability

Modulation of neural function

115

When comparing the cell organelles to different parts of the city, which place would have a similar function to the Golgi Apparatus of an animal cell?
a) City Hall
b) Post Office
c) Transportation Center
d) School

Post Office

116

How are the cardiac cells joined together?
a) Desmosomes
b) Tight Junctions
c) Gap Junctions
d) Epithelial Fission

Gap junctions

117

Which type of homeostatic response results in a non-reversible change in an animal’s genotype?
a) Acute Response
b) Chronic Response
c) Metabolic Response
d) Evolutionary Response

Evolutionary Response

118

Of the three types of salivary glands, which one contains only serous cells?
a) Parotid
b) Mandibular
c) Lingual
d) Endothelial

Parotid

119

**Which of the following statements about ATP is true?
a) ATP stands for Adenosine Triglycerol
b) ATP can be stored in large amounts in the muscles
c) ATP cannot be transported from one cell to another.
d) ATP is absorbed directly from the feed.

ATP cannot be transported from one cell to another.

120

Which system is responsible for a stimulatory effect on digestion?
a) Sympathetic NS
b) Parasympathetic
c) Enteric
d) Somatic

Parasympathetic

121

Which of the following is not an accessory organ?
a. Salivary glands
b. Pancreas
c. Gallbladder
d. Pharynx

Pharynx

122

**Muscle contraction does not require which of the following?
a. ATP
b. Calcium
c. Myelination
d. Acetylcholine

Myelination

123

The following are types of gated channels located in membranes except?
a. Ligand
b. Osmotic
c. Voltage
d. Stretch

Osmotic

124

Which of the following is not a macronutrient?
a. carbohydrates
b. vitamins
c. fats
d. proteins

Vitamins

125

Which enzyme breaks down the bacteria in a ruminant?
a. Lysozyme
b. Trypsinogen
c. Pepsidase
d. Amylase

Lysozyme

126

Which Glial cells help with immune response and help protect neurons from damage?
a. Astrocytes
b. Oligodendricytes
c. Schwann cells
d. Microglial cells

Microglial cells

127

When this branch of the of the autonomic nervous system is activated, effects include a decrease
in heart rate and an increase in digestive function
a) Sympathetic
b) Enteric
c) Parasympathetic
d) Peripheral

Parasympathetic

128

This part of the brain is responsible for motor coordination
a) Hippocampus
b) Thalamus
c) Medulla
d) Cerebellum

Cerebellum

129

Which of the following is needed to convert the inactive pancreatic enzyme pepsinogen to the
active enzyme pepsin in the stomach?
a) HCl
b) Trypsin
c) Chymotrypsin
d) Enterokinase

HCl

130

**The axon length in Parasympathetic Nervous System is:
a) Short pre-ganglionic neuron
b) Long post- ganglionic neuron
c) Short post-ganglionic neuron
d) Long pre-ganglionic neuron

Short post-ganglionic neuron

131

**What animal has the ability to absorb and utilize dietary glucose?
a) Cow
b) Horse
c) Cat
d) Both A and B.

Horse

132

Water can travel across a membrane using:
a) Diffusion
b) Transport Protein
c) Channel Protein
d) Osmosis

Osmosis

133

The plasma membrane contains four major membrane components, of those four, which is a
major building block of the animal body?
A) Phospholipids
B) Cholesterol
C) Protein
D) Glycoproteins and Glycolipids

Protein

134

**Hormones are chemical messengers produced by endocrine organs. Every hormone has certain
physiological attributes, which of the following attributes is incorrect?
A) Produce a specific effect on other (distant) cells
B) Released from glands or specialized cells within a tissue
C) Function in extremely small concentrations
D) Produce a specific effect on other (local) cells

Produce a specific effect on other (local) cells

135

Ruminants are ____________ fermenters, while horses are _____________ fermenters.
A) Foregut, hindgut
B) Foregut, midgut
C) Hindgut, foregut
D) Midgut, hindgut

Ruminants - Foregut
Horses - Hindgut

136

Which of the following is an incorrect example of a type of junction found among cells?
a. Gap
b. Desmosome
c. Basolateral
d. Tight

Basolateral

137

During which phase of an action potential are the voltage-gated Na+ channels inactivated (not
closed) while the voltage-gated K+ channels are fully open allowing K+ ions to flow out of the
cell?
a. Falling Phase
b. Overshoot
c. Rising Phase
d. Overshoot

Falling Phase

138

Which of the following proteins is not part of the thin filament?
a. Actin
b. Myosin
c. Troponin
d. Tropomyosin

Myosin

139

Which type of gland secretes substances into the blood stream?
a. Pancreatic
b. Endocrine
c. Exocrine
d. Cephalic

Endocrine

140

**Which of the acid phases is associated with anticipation?
a. Cephalic
b. Gastric
c. Intestinal
d. Parietal

Cephalic

141

Which part of the ruminant stomach resembles a honeycomb-like structure for sorting digesta?
a. Rumen
b. Reticulum
c. Omasum
d. Abomasum

Reticulum

142

The Frontal plane divides an animal into…
A. Left and right
B. Top and bottom
C. Towards the spine and away from the spine
D. Male and female

Top and Bottom

143

Which of these is not a neurotransmitter?
A. Glutamate
B. Acetylcholine
C. Cortisol
D. They are all neurotransmitters

Cortisol

144

What are the 4 segments of all vertebrate organisms in order?
A. Midgut, Foregut, Hindgut, Headgut
B. Foregut, Headgut, Midgut, Hindgut
C. Headgut,Foregut, Hindgut, Midgut
D. Headgut, Foregut, Midgut, Hindgut

Headgut, Foregut, Midgut, Hindgut

145

Which of these is not true regarding saliva in ruminants?
a) Contains urea
b) Provides fluid to the rumen
c) Acts as a buffer in rumen
d) Contains low amounts of Bicarbonate

Contains low amounts of Bicarbonate

146

Which one of these is not included in grey matter?
a) Cell bodies
b) Synapses
c) Unmyelinated axons
d) Myelinated axons

Myelinated axons

147

****Which factor increases action potential velocity?
a) Longer axon
b) No myelination of axon
c) Smaller axon diameter
d) Higher temperature

Higher Temperature, more myelination, and bigger diameter

148

**The ___________________ in ruminants and the ___________________ in hind-gut fermentors
are the primary sites of microbial digestion.
a) abomasum, colon
b) rumen, colon
c) reticulum, cecum
d) rumen, cecum

Ruminants - Rumen
Horses - Cecum

149

**Which of the following statements regarding cardiac muscle is false?
a) Cardiac muscle contains sarcomeres and has a striated appearance.
b) Cardiac muscle is uninucleated.
c) Ca2+ is released from the pre-synaptic neuron and enters cardiac muscle via active
transport.
d) Cardiac muscle can spontaneously depolarize.

Ca2+ is released from the pre-synaptic neuron and enters cardiac muscle via active
transport.

150

Which of the following factors does not play an important role in maintaining resting membrane
potential?
a) Cl- can be easily transported into and out of the cell to offset changes in the electrochemical equilibrium.
b) Ions must pass through membrane channels or be actively transported.
c) Membrane channels are selectively permeable to different ions.
d) Membrane channels may open and close at different times.

Cl- can be easily transported into and out of the cell to offset changes in the electrochemical equilibrium.

151

Physiology can be described as?
a) How the body works
b) The structure of the body
c) Origin of the body
d) The whole animal and how it operates to live

How the body works

152

All of the following are true about Active Transport except
a) Binding transporter
b) No ATP is used
c) Goes against the equilibrium
d) primary and secondary degrees present

No ATP is used

153

The enzyme produced in the Pancreas to help with starch digestion are?
a) Trypsinogen
b) Lipase
c) Bicarbonate
d) Amylase

Amylase

154

**Which of the following zones of the sarcomere only contains myosin?
a) I-band
b) H-zone
c) Z-disk
d) A-band

H-zone

155

**Which of the following zones is composed of parts of two adjacent sarcomeres?
a) I-band
b) H-zone
c) Z-disk
d) A-band

I-band

156

What part of the neuron is responsible for propagating the action potential?
a) Cell body/soma
b) Dendrite
c) Axon
d) Presynaptic Terminal

Axon

157

**Which membrane component helps maintain the structure of the cell?
A. Cholesterol
B. Glycoproteins & glycolipids
C. Protein
D. Phospholipids

Cholesterol

158

What determines whether or not a voltage-gated channel is opened or closed?
A. Changes in membrane tension
B. If a specific molecule is bound to the protein
C. Charge gradient across the membrane
D. If channel protein is phosphorylated

Charge gradient across the membrane

159

Which of the following is an example of a chronic response?
A. Fatigue
B. Thicker hair coat
C. Shivering
D. Increase in heart rate

Thicker hair coat