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Flashcards in Exam 1 Anatomy Deck (157):
1

Anatomy

Study of Structure and form

2

cytology

study of cells

3

histology

study of tissues

4

systematic anatomy

anatomy of body systems

5

regional anatomy

studying specific regions

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surface anatomy

superficial anatomic markings and internal body structures that relate

7

comparative anatomy

looking at similarities and differences between difference species.

8

embroyology

developmental changes from conception to birth

9

pathalogic anatomy

Looking at how disease affects the structure of the body

10

radiographic anatomy

using X-ray to see internal structures

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Organization of the body

Atom > Molecule > Macromolecule > Organelle> Cells > Tissue > organ > Organ system > organism

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Body Regions 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

1. Rt Hypochondriac 2. Epigastric 3. Lt Hypochondriac 4. Rt Lumbar 5. Umbilical 6. Lt Lumbar 7. Rt iliac 8. Hypogastric 9. Lt Iliac

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Body Quadrants 1 2 3 4

1. Right upper quadrant 2. LUQ 3. RLQ 4. LLQ

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Serous Membrane of the -heart -lungs -abdominalpelvic region

Pericardial (Visceral and parietal) Pleural Peritoneum

15

Homeostasis

Stimulus --> Receptor--> Control Center --> Effector

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Water qualities

Transports lubricates cushions excretes waste cohesions, surface tension, adhesion high specific heat and heat of vaporization

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Water mixtures: suspension

Must remain in motion or it settles

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Water mixtures: Colloid

scatters and doesn't settle

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Water mixtures: Solution

High concentration of solute, doesn't settle (salt or sugar water)

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Water mixtures: Emulsion

Polar and non-polar substances

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Lipids

Stored nutrients, cellular membranes, hormones

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Triglycerides

Glycerol + 3 free fatty acids Long term energy storage, structural support, cushioning, insulation of the body

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Phospholipids

bilayer membrane. lipid

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Steroids

4-ring hydrocarbon. lipid

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Eicosaniods

20 C Fatty acid

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-enesis

formation of

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-lisis

breakdown of

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Carbohydrates

C+H+O easiest energy source Made of monosaccarides

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Nucleic Acid

RNA, DNA, ATP

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DNA Base pairs

Adenine, guanine, Cytosine, Thymine

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RNA Base Pairs

Adenine, guanine, cytosine, Uracil

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Proteins

Chains of amino acids >50 is protein 2>AA>50 is polypeptide

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Protein Structure

Primary Secondary (Alpha helix and beta pleats) tertiary (globular or fibrous) Quaternary

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Energy

Used by living creatures to fuel metabolism

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Metabolism

Sum total of chemical events in the body

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Potential Energy

Energy of position

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Kinetic Energy

Energy of motion

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Mechanical Energy

Because of movement (Pumping of heart)

39

Sound Energy

Movement of compressed molecules though a medium from vibrating object

40

Radient Energy

Movement of electromagnetic waves that trail and vary in frequency and wavelength

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Chemical Reactions in the body

Decomposition AB--> A + B Synthesis A+B-->AB Exchange AB + C --> A + BC

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Exergonic

Have more energy in bonds than separate reactants (Energy released) (Decomposition)

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Endergonic

Energy must be put in

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Enzymes

proteins that catalyze reactions. Change activation energy

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Competitive inhibitor

Goes into active site to block substrate

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noncompetitive inhibitor

Goes in allosteric site, changes the shape of the enzyme so substrate cannot bind to enzyme

47

What changes reaction rate?

temp, pH, enzymes, concentration

48

Cellular respiration

process by which cells convert glucose to ATP

49

Glycolysis

Takes place in the cytosol, anaerobic, creates 2 pyruvate. Makes 2ADP and 2 e- carriers

50

Intermediate stage

Takes place in the mitochondria, aerobic, uses 2 pyruvate, creates 2 Acetyl CoA and CO2 , Energy: 2 e- carriers (Per Pyruvate)

51

Citric Acid Cycle

Takes place in the mitochondria, aerobic, uses Acetyl CoA, . Makes 1 ATP + 4 e- carriers

52

Electron transport chain

Mitochondria, aerobic, Use e- carriers. produces CO2, heat, makes 36 ATP

53

Cell Shapes: irregular

Neurons

54

Cell Shapes: biconcave

red blood cells

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Cell Shapes: Squama

Like UFO. Flat and squashed

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Cell Shapes: cuboital

cube like. Kidney tubule cells

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Cell Shapes: columnar

Tall and column like. Intestinal lining

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Cell Shapes: Spherical

round (Cartilage cells)

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Cell Shapes: cylindrical

cylinder like (Skeletal muscles cells)

60

Diffusion

Movement of molecules from high concentration to lower concentration

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Channel mediated diffusion

leak channels allow ions through (still diffusion)

62

Carrier mediated Diffusion

Movement of small polar molecules through carrier protein that changes shape to carry molecule through

63

Osmosis

Movement of water from high solute concentration to low solute concentration

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isotonic

equal concentrations inside and outside cell

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hypotonic

less concentrated outside of cell, water will try to equalize it but going into cell (hemolysis)

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Hypertonic

More concentrated outside of cell, water leaves cell (crenation)

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Primary Active transport

Uses ATP to move things against the concentration gradient

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ion pumps

Move ions across membrane (ex. Ca2+ pump moving Ca2+ out of erythrocytes) Active transport

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Na+/K+ pump (ATPase)

exchange pump. moves two different ions against their respective concentration gradients.

70

Secondary active transport

Coupled transport. Moves substance against CG using energy provided by a substance moving down its concentration gradient

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Symport

2 substances moved in same direction

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antiport

2 substances moving in opposite directions

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Exocytosis

Out of cell

74

Endocytosis

Into cell

75

pinocytosis

cell drinking (takes interstitial fluid with its dissolved solutes)

76

phagocytosis

cell eating (takes a large particle by forming extensions called pseudopodia)

77

Receptor mediated

receptors bind to get large quantities of specific particles

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Channel link

Ligand receptor complex opens a channel that allows and ion to move down concentration gradient

79

Enzymatic Receptor

ligand receptor complex activates an intracellular enzyme

80

G-Coupled receptor

Ligand receptor complex activates a G-Protein that stimulates another protein to produce a 2nd messenger that carries out effects inside the cell

81

Plasma membrane bound receptors

Channel link, enzymatic, G-Coupled

82

Plasma membrane

phosopholipid bilayer. Creates boundary, is semi-permeable, electrochemical gradients, communication

83

Cilia

Move substances across cell surface

84

Flagellum

move cell

85

Microvilli

Create more surface area

86

Nucleus

Holds DNA (genetic material or directing protein synthesis)

87

Nuclear envelope

Separates nucleus from cytoplasm

88

Nuclear pores

Allows materials to pass through (RNA, proteins, ions, small water soluble molecules)

89

Nucleolus

Makes Ribosomes

90

Cytoplasm

organelles+ cytosol

91

Rough Endoplasmic reticulum

Covered in Ribosomes. Makes proteins that are destines for export

92

Smooth Endoplasmic reticulum

synthesizes lipid, metabolizes carbs, detox from drugs

93

Golgi Apparatus

Package and ship protein from RER

94

Vesicles

membrane bound transport

95

lysomes

digestive enzyme

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mitochondria

synthesize APT with aerobic respiration

97

Ribosomes

protein synthesis (Bound or free)(Free for proteins within the cells)

98

Cytoskeleton

Protein that gives cell shape and facilitates movement

99

Centrosomes

For cell division

100

Cell junctions: Tight junction

Like stitching

101

Cell junctions: Desmosome

like snaps

102

Cell junctions: Gap junction

important for electrical signals

103

RNA splits DNA, mRNA reads it

Transcription

104

Exits nucleous, tRNA carries amino acids and puts it together in ribosomes according to codons

Translation

105

Cell Cycle

Prophase, Create chromosomes Metaphase: Chromosomes line up Anaphase: pull apart Telophase: Nucleus forms, chromosomes uncoil Cytokinesis: Cell pinches

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Must remain in motion or it settles

Water mixtures: suspension

107

scatters and doesn't settle

Water mixtures: Colloid

108

High concentration of solute, doesn't settle (salt or sugar water)

Water mixtures: Solution

109

Polar and non-polar substances

Water mixtures: Emulsion

110

Have more energy in bonds than separate reactants (Energy released) (Decomposition)

Exergonic

111

Energy must be put in

Endergonic

112

Goes into active site to block substrate

Competitive inhibitor

113

Goes in allosteric site, changes the shape of the enzyme so substrate cannot bind to enzyme

noncompetitive inhibitor

114

Takes place in the cytosol, anaerobic, creates 2 pyruvate. Makes 2ADP and 2 e- carriers

Glycolysis

115

Takes place in the mitochondria, aerobic, uses 2 pyruvate, creates 2 Acetyl CoA and CO2 , Energy: 2 e- carriers (Per Pyruvate)

Intermediate stage

116

Takes place in the mitochondria, aerobic, uses Acetyl CoA, . Makes 1 ATP + 4 e- carriers

Citric Acid Cycle

117

Mitochondria, aerobic, Use e- carriers. produces CO2, heat, makes 36 ATP

Electron transport chain

118

Movement of molecules from high concentration to lower concentration

Diffusion

119

leak channels allow ions through (still diffusion)

Channel mediated diffusion

120

Movement of small polar molecules through carrier protein that changes shape to carry molecule through

Carrier mediated Diffusion

121

Movement of water from high solute concentration to low solute concentration

Osmosis

122

equal concentrations inside and outside cell

isotonic

123

less concentrated outside of cell, water will try to equalize it but going into cell (hemolysis)

hypotonic

124

More concentrated outside of cell, water leaves cell (crenation)

Hypertonic

125

2 substances moved in same direction

Symport

126

2 substances moving in opposite directions

antiport

127

Out of cell

Exocytosis

128

Into cell

Endocytosis

129

cell drinking (takes interstitial fluid with its dissolved solutes)

pinocytosis

130

cell eating (takes a large particle by forming extensions called pseudopodia)

phagocytosis

131

receptors bind to get large quantities of specific particles

Receptor mediated

132

Ligand receptor complex opens a channel that allows and ion to move down concentration gradient

Channel link

133

ligand receptor complex activates an intracellular enzyme

Enzymatic Receptor

134

Ligand receptor complex activates a G-Protein that stimulates another protein to produce a 2nd messenger that carries out effects inside the cell

G-Coupled receptor

135

phosopholipid bilayer. Creates boundary, is semi-permeable, electrochemical gradients, communication

Plasma membrane

136

Move substances across cell surface

Cilia

137

move cell

Flagellum

138

Create more surface area

Microvilli

139

Holds DNA (genetic material or directing protein synthesis)

Nucleus

140

Separates nucleus from cytoplasm

Nuclear envelope

141

Allows materials to pass through (RNA, proteins, ions, small water soluble molecules)

Nuclear pores

142

Makes Ribosomes

Nucleolus

143

organelles+ cytosol

Cytoplasm

144

Covered in Ribosomes. Makes proteins that are destines for export

Rough Endoplasmic reticulum

145

synthesizes lipid, metabolizes carbs, detox from drugs

Smooth Endoplasmic reticulum

146

Package and ship protein from RER

Golgi Apparatus

147

membrane bound transport

Vesicles

148

digestive enzyme

lysomes

149

synthesize APT with aerobic respiration

mitochondria

150

protein synthesis (Bound or free)(Free for proteins within the cells)

Ribosomes

151

Protein that gives cell shape and facilitates movement

Cytoskeleton

152

For cell division

Centrosomes

153

Like stitching

Cell junctions: Tight junction

154

like snaps

Cell junctions: Desmosome

155

important for electrical signals

Cell junctions: Gap junction

156

Transcription

RNA splits DNA, mRNA reads it

157

Translation

Exits nucleous, tRNA carries amino acids and puts it together in ribosomes according to codons