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The science that seeks to understand how and why people of all ages and circumstances change or remain the same

Science of human development

1

A way to answer questions that require empirical research and data-based conclusions

Scientific method

2

A specific prediction that can be tested

Hypothesis

3

Evidence based on data from scientific observation or experiment

Empirical evidence

4

The repetition of a study, using different participants

Repetition

5

A general term for the traits, capacities, and limitations that each individual inherits genetically from his or her parents at the moment of conception

Nature

6

A general term for all the environmental influences that affect development after an individual is conceived

Nurture

7

The term used to describe an infant's unexpected death, when a seemingly healthy baby, usually between 2 and 6 months old, suddenly stops breathing and dies unexpectedly while asleep

Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)

8

An approach to the study of human development that takes into account all phases of life, not just childhood or adulthood

Life-span perspective

9

A time when a particular type of developmental growth (in body or behavior) must happen if it is ever going to happen

Critical period

10

A time when a certain type of development is most likely to happen or happens most easily, although it may still happen later with more difficulty

Sensitive period

11

The view that in the study of human development, the person should be considered in all the contexts and interactions that constitute a life

Ecological-systems approach

12

A group defined by the shared age of its members, who, because they were born at about the same time, move through life together, experiencing the same historical events and cultural shifts

Cohort

13

A person's position in society as determined by income, wealth, occupation, education, and place of residence

Socioeconomic status (SES)

14

A system of shared beliefs, norms, behaviors, and expectations that persist over time and prescribe social behavior and assumptions

Culture

15

An idea that is based on shared perceptions, not an objective reality

Social construction

16

The mistaken belief that a deviation from some norm is necessarily inferior to behavior or characteristics that meet the standard

Difference-equals-deficit error

17

People whose ancestors were born in the same region and who often share a language, culture, and religion

Ethnic group

18

A group of people regarded as distinct from other groups on the basis of appearance, typically skin color

Race

19

Referring to the effects of environmental forces on the expression of an individual's, or a species', genetic inheritance

Epigenetic

20

A view of human development as an ongoing, ever-changing interaction between a person's physical and emotional being and between the person an every aspect of his or her environment, including the family and society

Dynamic-systems approach

21

The idea that some people are more vulnerable than others are to certain experiences, usually because of genetic differences

Differential sensitivity

22

A group of ideas, assumptions, and generalizations that interpret and illuminate the thousands of observations that have been made about human growth

Developmental theory

23

A theory of human development that holds that irrational, unconscious drives and motives, often originating in childhood, underlie human behavior

Psychoanalytic theory

24

A theory of human development that studies observable behavior, also called the learning theory because it describes the laws and processes by which behavior is learned

Behaviorism

25

According to behaviorism, the processes by which responses become linked to particular stimuli and learning takes place

Conditioning

26

A learning process in which a meaningful stimulus gradually comes to be connected with a neutral stimulus that had no special meaning before

Classical conditioning

27

A learning process in which a particular action is followed either by something desired or something unwanted

Operant conditioning

28

A technique for conditioning a particular behavior in which that behavior is followed by something desired

Reinforcement

29

An extension of behaviorism that emphasizes that other people influence each person's behavior (imitation, not reinforcement)

Social learning theory