EXAM 1 (CH. 1-4) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in EXAM 1 (CH. 1-4) Deck (70):
1

4 Goals of Psychology

Describe, predict, understand, modify

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Behaviorism (& founding psychologist)

Early 1900s (after structuralism and functionalism); how environment and experience affect measurable behavior(reinforcement/punishment); Watson

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Psychodynamic (& founding psychologist)

Freud; how unconscious conflict and inner forces affect thoughts/behavior/feelings; understanding the psyche

4

Humanistic psychology

"positive psychology"; how to live a fulfilled life

5

Eclectic approach

Taking multiple perspectives and theories into account

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Cognitive revolution

How thoughts affect behavior/feelings (reasoning, memory, intelligence, beliefs)

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3 common misconceptions on psychology

1. All about mental disorders
2. Best at predicting individual behavior and not patterns for large groups
3. no better than intuition or logic since it's not for sure

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Clinical psychologist

diagnoses mental disorders (psychiatrist uses medicine)

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Research Psychologist

specializes in cognitive, social, developmental, etc.

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Applied Psychologist

Finding practical uses for research (human factors psychologist)

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Empiricism

(Aristotle) knowledge comes from day-to-day experieces

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Nativism

(Immanuel Kant) some kinds of knowledge are innate, or inborn

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Gestalt psychology

Humans are born with a fixed way of looking at the world

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Structuralism (& 2 founding psychologists)

(Wundt and Titchener) break into elements and discover how they work as a whole

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Biological Approach

How the body affects behavior/feelings/thoughts and vice versa (genetics)

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Evolutionary psychology

How our adaptive evolution affects us today

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Sociocultural approach

How social & cultural influences affect thoughts/behaviors/feelings (often underestimated)

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4 steps of scientific method

Observe
Detect regularities
Generate hypotheses
observe

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3 Goals of psychological research

1. Describe behavior (naturalistic observation, case study, survey, sampling of population)
2. Predicting behavior (association/correlation between two variables)
3. Explaining behavior (causal association between two variables)

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Reactivity

behavior is changed by the process of being observed

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Naturalistic observation

Records only natural recurring behavior (high external validity)

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Case Studies

focused on individual

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Survey

used to sample behavior broadly

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Achievement vs. Aptitude test

achievement measures current knowledge/competence; aptitude measures potential for success

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Inferential statistics

probability-based statistics to see if results are representative of large population and didn't just happen by chance

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3 "hallmarks" of an experimental approach

1) control of all other variables (impossible with humans)
2) manipulation of an independent variable
3) random assignment to conditions (can't control individual differences)

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Confounding variable

uncontrolled variables that can change with the independent variable

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Internal vs External Validity

internal has control over variables; external has legitimate real world results

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Reliability vs Validity

Reliability is to precision as validity is to accuracy

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3 main things selected by nature

Food attainment
Predator/danger avoidance
Reproductive factors

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False Dichotomy

Nature vs. Nurture - it could be both

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Sensory Neurons

initial contact with environment and carry message to CNS

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Interneurons

carry messages from one internal processing site to another

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Motor Neurons

carry messages away from CNS to muscles/glands for responses

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Glial Cells

cells that fill in space between the neurons, remove waste, or help neurons communicate efficiently

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Parts/purpose of a neuron

dendrites - branches; receive message
soma - cell body; processes message
axon - tree trunk; transmits message
Myelin sheath - protects cell and speeds up neural transmission
terminal branches - roots; send message

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Synapse

Space between neurons where messages are sent

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resting potential

Negative charge on inside, positive charge on outside of neuron (polarized)

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action potential

Allows for depolarization; mixing of positive and negative ions

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neurotransmitters

Chemical messengers that relay information from one neuron to the next

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acetylcholine

Affects movement, learning, memory, and REM sleep; imbalances are linked to alzheiimers

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dopamine

Affects reward and pleasure; linked to Schizophrenia and Parkinson's

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serotonin

neurotransmitter that affects sleep, dreams, and general arousal; imbalances cause schizophrenia, depression, OCD

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GABA

neurotransmitter that regulates anxiety

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Endorphins

brain's natural pain killers

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Refractory period

period of time following an action potential that another action potential can't proceed

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Parts of the peripheral nervous system

Somatic - under concious control - motor movement, sense receptors
Autonomic (2 divisions) - control involuntary actions - heart, glands, digestion

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Parts of Autonomic system

Sympathetic - activates internal organs during times of stress arousal (activates the fight or flight response)
Parasympathetic - reverse the effects of the sympathetic (back to normal)

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Endocrine system & hormones

network of glands that use the bloodstream to send chemical signals; chemicals sent in the endocrine system that regulate internal function

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Why do twin studies?

If identical twins have more of a correlation of a trait, there is a good chance that it is a hereditary trait because they have the same genes (Example: intelligence 86% of identical twins have the same IQ, 60% of fraternal twins, 46% siblings, and 0% unrelated, so intelligence is said to have strong hereditary connection)

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Germinal period

conception to implantation of fertilized egg to uterus wall

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Embryonic period

implantation of fertilized egg to uterus wall to end of eighth week; baby takes shape

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Fetal period

9th week til birth; development

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teratogens

environmental agents that can potentially harm the baby's development as embryo or fetus (diseases/drugs)

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Preference technique of study babies?

babies prefer certain stimuli to others

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assimilation vs accomodation

assimilate - taking new experiences into existing schemata
accomodate - change existing schemata to ccomodate new experiences

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Piaget: sensorimotor

0 - 2 years old
Develop sense of the world through their senses and motor activity
Object permanence develops at 6-9 months

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Piaget(cognitive): preoperational

2 - 7 years old
Can think about absent objects and think symbolically; cannot perform logical mental functions
Egocentrism - completely self-centered; can't take different perspective
no conservation - inability to recognize that volume is unchanged when container is changed
Centration - focus on one aspect of situation
no Reversibility - inability to undo steps to return to original state
Animism - inanimate objects are alive; imagination is very active
Perceptually oriented - tendency to focus on the perceptual aspect of a task and not logical
Intuitive - make choices based on salient figures, not logic

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Piaget(cognitive): Concrete Operational

7 - 11 years old
Can perform logical thinking, but abilities limited to things that flow from everyday experience
Reversibility and conservation kick in

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Piaget(cognitive): Formal Operational

11 & up
Capable of abstract thought and hypothetical thinking
Adolescent egocentrism - world revolves around them (imaginary audience and personal fable)

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Kohlberg(moral): Preconventional

young children; based on immediate, external consequences to them, not abstract moral principles (when they do it, they get punished, so it is bad)

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Kohlberg(moral): Conventional

based on whether something violates a social order or has societal consequences; maintain order and conform to societal duties/norms, which are good

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Kohlberg(moral): Postconventional

based on abstract principles that can even conflict with accepted societal standards (universal ethical principles)

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Contact comfort

being comforted by being able to touch something (blanket, fake mother)

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Avoidant attachment

no attachment to the mother, which is a result of unresponsive parenting

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Personal identity

a sense of who one is and how one measures up to the rest

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Erikson's series of psychosocial crises

d

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gender schemas

organized set of beliefs and perceptions held about en and women

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ageism

discrimination or prejudice held against someone based on age

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Kubler-Ross 5 pre-death stages

1) denial, 2) anger, 3) bargaining, 4) depression, 5) acceptance