Exam 1 (Ch. 10-14) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 1 (Ch. 10-14) Deck (84):
1

Angkor Wat

Magnificent Khmer Vaishnavite temple that crowned the royal palace in Cambodia. Had statues representing Hindu gods.

2

Cahokia

- Commercial center for regional & long distance trade in N. America
- Largest city built north of Mexico before Columbus
- Earth mounds

3

Sufism

Islam for the common man

4

Mansa Musa

- Rich African king who made a Hajj (pilgrimage) to Mecca
- Showed off his wealth, let rest of world know that Africa has gold

5

Mongols

- Combination of nomadic forest & prairie peoples who lived by hunting & livestock herding
- Were expert horsemen

6

Rajas

"King" in the Kshatriya period of South Asia

7

Compass

Navigation instrument invented by the Chinese

8

Crusades

Wave of attacks launched by the Western Europeans
- 1st crusade launched in 1905 when Pope Urban II appealed to the warrior nobility to free the Holy Lands (Jerusalem) from Islam control

9

Dhows

- Ships used by Arab seafarers
- Had large triangle-shaped sails to maximize the capture of wind

10

Marco Polo

- Venetian Explorer who traveled to Xanadu, the summer capital of the Mongol Empire
- Published books about Asia

11

Genghis Khan

Founder of Mongol Empire

12

Feudalism

- System instituted in medieval Europe
- System where each peasant was under the authority of a lord

13

Song China

- Dynasty that ruled China who also started the first industrial revolution
- Lost China due to inflation

14

Delhi Sultanate

- Turkish regime of Northern India.
- Strengthened the cultural diversity and tolerance that were a hallmark of the Indian social order

15

Fall of Baghdad

- Caused by the invasion of the Mongols
- The city was the jewel of the Islam religion
- Burned libraries and books

16

Black Death

Great epidemic of the Bubonic Plague that ravaged Europe, East Asia, and North Africa

17

Dynasty

Hereditary ruling family that passed control from one generation to the next

18

English Peasant Revolt

Uprising of serfs that began as a protest against tax levied to raise money for a war on France

19

Divine Right Monarchy

It asserts that a King is subject to no Earthly authority, deriving his right to rule from the will of God

20

Moors

Refers to Muslims in North Africa, the western Sahara, and the Iberian Peninsula

21

Inquisition

- Enforced religious orthodoxy during Protestant Reformation
- Root out & punish heresy
- Performed witch trials

22

Suleiman the Magnigicant

Longest reigning sultan who led the Ottoman Empire through its Golden Age

23

Jacquerie

French peasant revolt

24

Red Turban Movement

Pushed out Mongols to create the Ming Dynasty

25

Humanism

Renaissance aspiration to know more about the human experience

26

Safavid Shahs

- Shia Islam
- Ruled modern Persia

27

Devshirme (Blood Tax)

Christian boys recruited by force to serve Ottoman government

28

Constantinople

Capital city, formerly known as Byzantium, which was founded as the New Rome by Constantine the Great

29

Ming China

- Started when the Red Turban movement drove the Mongols out of China
- Established the most centralized government of the period

30

Mandate of Heaven

- Ideology that right to rule comes from divinity
- Can be lost
- From China

31

Reconquista

Spanish reconquest of lost lands to the Moors

32

Flagellants

- European social group that emerged during the Bubonic Plague (14th century)
- Believed that the plague was a result of the wrath of God
- Religious discipline

33

Zheng He

- Chinese explorer
- Led China to be the "world's most important crossroads of trade"

34

Joan of Arc

French peasant girl who believed God chose her to lead the victory against England in the Hundred Years' War

35

Sikhism

Islamic-inspired religion that calls on its followers to renounce the caste system and to treat all believers as equal before God

36

Holy Roman Empire

Enormous realm that encompassed much of Europe and aspired to be the Christian successor state of the Roman Empire

37

Topkapi Palace

- Political HQ of the Ottoman Empire
- Located in Instanbul

38

Ottoman Empire

- Sunni Islam
- Ruled Anatolia, the Arab world, and much of southern and eastern Europe

39

Caravel

- Classic vessel for European exploration
- Small, fast Spanish / Portuguese sailing ships
- Suited for navigating in waters w/ unpredictable currents

40

Prince Henry of Portugal

Portuguese explorer who sailed down the coast of Africa to India

41

Atlantic System

- New system of trade and expansion that linked Europe, Africa, and the Americas
- Trade of enslaved Africans to S. America colonies of Portugal & Spain

42

Aztec Empire

- Mesoamerican Empire that was defeated by Hernan Cortez
- Lasted from 1430 to 1521

43

Gun-Slave Cycle

British gave guns to Africans for slaves, and the Africans used guns to get more slaves to trade for more guns

44

Incas

Conquered by Francis Pizzaro

45

Mestizos

Social class that is the offspring of a Spanish colonist and a native person

46

Hernan Cortez

Conquered Aztec Empire

47

Encomienda System

- Labor system the Spanish implemented
- Rewarded conquistadors the people of lands they conquered

48

Columbian Exchange

- Movements between Afro-Eurasia and the Americas
- Possible because of Christopher Columbus

49

Mughal Empire

One of Islam's greatest regimes

50

Jesuits

- Formed to counter the Protestant Reformation
- Performed missionary work and were active in politics and education

51

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

Massacre of Protestants in France (Huguenots)

52

Louis XIV

- "The Sun God"
- Absolute monarch
- Built Versailles

53

Peter the Great

- Created Russian Empire
- Goal to modernize Russia
- Moved capital to St. Petersburg

54

Catherine the Great

- Continued expansion of Russian territory & modernization
- Defeated Ottomans to annex Ukraine

55

Specie

Coin money

56

Canton System

System officially established by imperial decree that required European traders to have Chinese guild merchants act as guarantors for their good behavior and payment of fees

57

Enclosure

- Landowners took control of public lands to better organize & keep track of land & animals
- Closed off land that was previously shared w/ peasant farmers

58

Mercantilism

- The world had a fixed amount of wealth, which meant one country's wealth came at the expense of another
- Colonies existed for the sole purpose of enriching the Mother Country

59

Muscovy

The principality of Moscow

60

Siberia

The tundra region of Russia

61

Mamluks

Military men who ruled Egyptians as an independent regime until the Ottoman conquest

62

Tokugawa Shogunate

- Military administration in Japan
- Became more powerful than the emperor but left him alone
- Toppled when reformers felt Japan should accept western influences

63

Thirty Years War

Started as a religious war in Europe btwn Catholics & Protestants; ended as a political war

64

Qing Dynasty

Manchu rule over China that incorporated new territories, experienced substantial population growth, and sustained significant economic growth

65

Peace of Westphalia

Series of treaties that ended the Thirty Years' War

66

Aurangzeb

- Known as the last effective emperor of the Mughal Empire
- Reigned with the title, Alamgir

67

Enlightened Absolutism

Monarchs should rule rationally and in the best interest of their subjects

68

Palace of Versailles

Built by King Louis XIV. Placed all the nobles in there so he could monitor them better

69

Glorious Revolution of 1688

Established the principle that the monarch must rule in conjunction with Parliament

70

Seven Years War

- Also known as the the French and Indian War
- Resulted in British taking over French colonies in the Americas

71

Salons

Annual exhibition of arts by living artists

72

Plaza of Isfahan

Large square in Iran

73

Laissez-faire

- Concept that economy works best when it is left alone and when the state does not interfere with the economy

74

Creoles

Persons of full-blooded European descent who were born in the Spanish American colonies

75

Dennis Diderot's Encyclopedie

Influenced the French Revolution by introducing the idea that authority should not be hereditary or divinity

76

Peninsulars

Spaniards who were born in Spain but resided in Spanish colonies

77

James Cook

- British captain who documented a lot of the wildlife in Oceania
- Beneficial to the scientific community

78

Carl Linnaeus

Binomial nomenclature

79

The Birch Bark Letters of Novgorod

Letters found that detail people's concerns
- debt, disputes, love

80

The Hongwu Emperor's Proclamation

- Hongwu = founder of Ming dynasty
- Reveals how he envisioned reconstructing the devastated country as his own personal project
- Return to austerity (sternness/severity) by denouncing the morally corrosive effect money & material possessions

81

Silver, the Devil, and Coca Leaf in the Andes

- When Spanish colonists forced Andean Indians to work in the silver mines they permitted the chewing of coca leaves (now used to extract cocaine)
- Gave Indians a mild "high," alleviated their hunger, and lessened the pain of hard work
- Habit also spread to some Spainards
-> A Spaniard expresses how important coca was to Indian miners and how harmful it was for Spaniards who fell under its spell

82

Olaudah Equiano on the Atlantic Crossing

Description of the horrifying conditions that captives endured on the African coast as they awaited the arrival of slaving ships and the perils of the Atlantic crossing

83

European Views of the World

- First printed map: Waldseemüller map (1507); Americas as long narrow strip
- mid 17th century: more objective, but still grouped rest of the world around Europe

84

Mary Wollstonecraft on the Rights of Women

- Argued that the superiority of men was as arbitrary as the divine right of kings