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Flashcards in Exam 1 ch 2 Deck (49)
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The single cell that is formed from the fusing of two gametes, a sperm and an ovum

Zygote

1

The molecule that contains the chemical instructions for cells to manufacture various proteins

DNA

2

One of the 46 molecules of DNA (in 23 pairs) that each cell of the human body contains and that, together, contain all the genes

Chromosome

3

A small section of a chromosome; the basic unit for the transmission of heredity

Gene

4

A reproductive cell that can produce a new individual if it combines with a gamete from the other sex to form a zygote

Gamete

5

Any of the possible forms in which a gene for a particular trait can occur

Allele

6

An organism's entire inheritance, or genetic potential

Genotype

7

The observable characteristics of a person

Phenotype

8

The full set of genes that are the instructions to make an individual member of a certain species

Genome

9

A 23rd chromosome pair that results in a female zygote

XX

10

A 23rd chromosome pair that results in a male zygote

XY

11

Twins who originate from on zygote that splits apart very early in development

Monozygotic twins

12

Twins who are formed when two separate ova are fertilized by two separate sperm at roughly the same time

Dizygotic twins

13

The interaction of a pair of alleles in such a way that the phenotype reveals the influence of one allele more than that of the other

Dominant-recessive pattern

14

A gene that adds something to some aspect of the phenotype. Its contribution depend on additions from other genes, which may come from either the same or the other parent

Additive gene

15

A person whose genotype includes a gene that is not expressed in the phenotype

Carrier

16

A gene on the X chromosome

X-linked

17

The first two weeks of prenatal development after conception, characterized by rapid cell division and the beginning of cell differentiation

Germinal period

18

The stage of prenatal development from approximately the third through the eighth week after conception, during which the basic forms of all body structures, including internal organs, develop

Embryonic period

19

The stage of prenatal development from the ninth week after conception until birth, during which the fetus grows in size and matures in functioning

Fetal period

20

Cells from which any other specialized type of cell can form

Stem cells

21

The process, beginning about 10 days after conception, in which the developing organism burrows into the tissue that lines the uterus, where it can be nourished and protected as it continues to develop

Implantation

22

The name for a developing human organism from about the third through the eighth week after conception

Embryo

23

The name for a developing human organism from the start of the ninth week after conception until birth

Fetus

24

An image of a fetus produced by using high-frequency sound waves

Ultrasound

25

The age (about 22 weeks after conception) at which a fetus may survive outside the mother's uterus if specialized medical care is available

Age of viability

26

A quick assessment of a newborn's body functioning...

Apgar scale

27

A surgical birth, in which incisions through the mother's abdomen and uterus allow the fetus to be removed quickly

Cesarean section

28

A woman who helps with the birth process...

Doula

29

A test often administered to newborns that measures responsiveness and records 46 behaviors, including 20 reflexes

Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Scale (NBAS)