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Flashcards in Exam 1 ch 3 Deck (42)
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An average, or standard measurement, calculated from the measurements of many individuals within a specific group or population

Norm

1

A biological mechanism that protects the brain when malnutrition disrupts body growth. The brain is the last part of the body to be damaged

Head-sparing

2

One of billions of nerve cells in the central nervous system, especially in the brain

Neuron

3

The outer layers of the brain in humans and other mammals where most thinking, feeling, and sensing occurs

Cortex

4

The area of the cortex at the very front of the brain that specializes in anticipation, planning, and impulse control

Prefrontal cortex

5

A fiber that extends from a neuron and transmits electrochemical impulses from that neuron to the dendrites of others

Axon

6

A fiber that extends from a neuron and receives electrochemical impulses transmitted from other neurons via their axons

Dendrite

7

The intersection between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites of other neurons

Synapses

8

A brain chemical that carries information from the axon of a sending neuron to the dendrites of a receiving neuron

Neurotransmitter

9

The pathway across which neurotransmitters carry information from the axon of the sending neuron to the dendrites of the receiving neuron

Synaptic gap

10

The great but temporary increase in the number of dendrites that develop in an infant's brain during the first two years of life

Transient exuberance

11

When applied to brain development, the process by which unused connections in the brain atrophy and die

Pruning

12

A life-threatening injury that occurs when an infant is forcefully shaken back and forth, a motion that ruptures blood vessels in the brain and breaks neural connections

Shaken baby syndrome

13

The inborn drive to remedy a developmental deficit...

Self-righting

14

A stage of sleep characterized by flickering eyes behind closed lids, dreaming, and rapid brain waves

REM (rapid eye movement) sleep

15

A custom in which parents and their children sleep together in the same room

Co-sleeping

16

The response of a sensory system when it detects a stimulus

Sensation

17

The mental processing of sensory information when the brain interprets a sensation

Perception

18

The ability to focus the two eyes in a coordinated manner in order to see one image

Binocular vision

19

The learned abilities to move some part of the body

Motor skills

20

Physical abilities involving large body movements

Gross motor skills

21

Physical abilities involving small body movements

Fine motor skills

22

A process that stimulates the body's immune system to defend against attack by a particular contagious disease...

Immunization

23

A condition in which a person does not consume sufficient food of any kind....

Protein-calorie malnutrition

24

The failure of children to grow to a normal height for their age due to severe and chronic malnutrition

Stunting

25

The tendency for children to be severely underweight for their age as a result of malnutrition

Wasting

26

A disease of severe protein-calorie malnutrition during early infancy, in which growth stops, body tissues waste away, and the infant eventually dies

Marasmus

27

A disease of chronic malnutrition during childhood, in which a protein deficiency makes the child more vulnerable to other diseases...

Kwashiorkor

28

Piaget's term for the way infants think - by using their senses and motor skills - during the first period of cognitive development

Sensorimotor intelligence

29

The realization that objects still exist even when they can no longer be seen, touched, or heard

Object permanence