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Flashcards in Exam 1 ch 4 Deck (24)
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A smile evoked by a human face, normally first evident in infants about 6 weeks after birth

Social smile

1

The primary stress hormone

Cortisol

2

An infant's distress when a familiar caregiver leaves, most obvious between 9 and 14 months

Separation anxiety

3

An infant's expression of concern - a quiet state while clinging to a familiar person, or a look of fear - when a stranger appears

Stranger wariness

4

A person's realization that he or she is a distinct individual whose body, mind, and actions are separate from those of other people

Self-awareness

5

Inborn differences between one person and another in emotions, activity, and self regulation...

Temperament

6

A coordinated, rapid, and smooth exchange of responses between a caregiver and an infant

Synchrony

7

An experimental practice in which an adult keeps his or her face unmoving and expressionless in face-to-face interaction with an infant

Still-face technique

8

According to Ainsworth, "an affectional tie" that an infant forms with a caregiver - a tie that binds them together in space and endures over time

Attachment

9

A relationship in which an infant obtains both comfort and confidence from the presence of his or her caregiver

Secure attachment

10

A pattern of attachment in which an infant avoids connection with the caregiver, as when the infant seems not to care about the caregiver's presence, departure, or return

Insecure-avoidant attachment

11

A pattern of attachment in which an infant's anxiety and uncertainty are evident, as when the infant becomes very upset at separation from the caregiver and both resists and seeks contact on reunion

Insecure-resistant / ambivalent attachment

12

A type of attachment that is marked by an infant's inconsistent reactions to the caregiver's departure and return

Disorganized attachment

13

A laboratory procedure for measuring attachment by evoking infants' reactions to the stress of various adults' comings and goings in an unfamiliar playroom

Strange situation

14

Seeking information about how to react to an unfamiliar or ambiguous object or event by observing someone else's expressions and reactions

Social referencing

15

Erikson's first crisis of psychosocial development. Infants learn basic trust if the world is a secure place where their basic needs are met

Trust versus mistrust

16

Erikson's second crisis of psychosocial development. Toddlers either succeed or fail in gaining a sense of self-rule over their actions and their bodies

Autonomy versus shame and doubt

17

The acquisition of behavior patterns by observing the behavior of others

Social learning

18

Caregiving practices that involve being physically close to the baby

Proximal parenting

19

Caregiving practices that involve remaining distant from the baby, providing toys, food, and face-to-face communication instead

Distal parenting

20

In cognitive theory, a set of assumptions that the individual uses to organize perceptions and experiences

Working model

21

Literally, "other-care"; the care of children by people other than the biological parents

Allocare

22

Child care that includes several children of various ages and usually occurs in the home of a woman who is paid to provide it

Family day care

23

Child care that occurs in a place especially designed for the purpose, where several paid adults care for many children...

Center day care