Exam 1 Drugs Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 1 Drugs Deck (80):
1

Direct Acting Parasympathomimetic

Bethanechol

2

Reversible - Indirect Acting Parasymapthomimetics

Neostigmine, Pyridostigmine, Edrophonium

3

Direct Acting Parasympatholytics

Atropine, Glycopyrrolate, Oxybutynin, Propantheline

4

Muscarinic agonist for M3 receptors in the detrusor

Bethanchol

5

These group of drugs are termed acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, anticholinesterases, or cholinesterase inhibitors

Neostigmine, Pyridostigmine, Edrophonium

6

Long term acting for Myasthenia gravis

Pyridostigmine

7

Intermediate acting for Myasthenia gravis

Neostigmine

8

Short term acting for Myasthenia gravis

Edrophonium

9

Often used in the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis to differentitate between myasthenic crisis and cholinergic crisis

Edrophonium

10

These drugs act as muscarinic antagonists

Atropine, Glycopyrrolate, Oxybutynin, Propantheline

11

Stimulates contraction of the detrusor muscle causing bladder contractions

Bethanechol

12

Should have a crash cart with atropine on hand and an IV catheter in place when waiting for the response of this drug

Edrophonium

13

More commonly to treat myasthenia gravis in small animals

Pyridostigmine

14

Commonly used when there is spinal injury (particularly at the lower motor neuron bladder dysfunction)

Bethanechol

15

Tensilon test

is a method to help diagnose myasthenia gravis by using Edrophonium

16

Approved in cattle, horses, pigs and sheep to treat either myasthenia gravis or to stimulate/improve GIT motility

Neostigmine

17

Irreversible - Indirect Acting Parasympathomimetics

Carbamate Insecticides, Organophosphate Insecticides

18

Organophosphates can be treated with ...

Atropine

19

Muscarinic Antagonist

Atropine, Glycopyrrolate, Oxybutynin, Propantheline

20

Urinary antispasmodic agent

Oxybutynin and Propantheline

21

Most often used to treat bradycardia by preventing the actions of acetylcholine as PSNS target tissue

Atropine

22

Slower onset and longer duration of action than atropine

Glycopyrrolate

23

Used for urinary incontinence that is due to detrusor hyperrflexia. It will relax the detrusor muscle to allow better bladder filling and storage.

Oxybutynin and Propantheline

24

It is a quaternary ammonium compound and so it DOES NOT cross the BBB

Glycopyrrolate

25

Direct Acting Sympathomimetics

Epinephrine, Norepinephrine, dopamine, dobutamine, isoproterenol, Phenylephrine, alpha-2 agonist, Ractopamine, Zilpaterol, Albuterol, Clenbuterol, Terbutaline

26

Indirect Acting Sympathomimetics

Clomipramine, Doxepin, Selegiline, Cocaine, and Amphetamine

27

Mixed (Direct and Indirect) Acting Sympathomimetics

Phenylpropanolamine and Ephedrine

28

Direct Acting Sympatholytics

Phenoxybenzamine, Prazosin, Propanolol, Atenolol, and Esmolol

29

Indirect Acting Sympatholytic

Reserpine

30

Agonist for all adrenergic receptors

Epineprine

31

Agonist for alpha 1 and 2, and beta 1

Norepinephrine

32

Acts directly and indirectly to alpha 1 and beta 1 receptors. Typically used for small animals

Dopamine

33

Synthetic beta 1 agonist. Typically used for large animals.

Dobutamine

34

Synthetic non-selective beta 1 and beta 2 agonist

Isoproterenol

35

Doses similar to epinephrine it will tend to increase the mean arterial blood pressure more (stronger)

Norepinephrine

36

SC absorption is slow if given with an alpha 1 agonist (lidocaine)

Epinephrine

37

Low doses will act on peripheral receptors causing dilation of vascular beds

Dopamine

38

May be used to treat bradyarrhytmias or acute brochoconstriction

Isoproterenol

39

Since there is no beta 2 effect; there is significant vasoconstriction which can increase afterload

Norepinephrine

40

Generally used as a positive inotrope to increase cardiac blood flow and oxygen demand

Dobutamine

41

Very high doses it will also activate alpha 1 receptors and cause release of NE, leading to vasoconstriction

Dopamine

42

Typically used in need where vasopressor is needed such as: cardiac arrest, anaphylaxis or anaphylactoid reactions, vasoconstriction and positive inotropy are needed

Epinephrine

43

Very high doses it will also activate beta 1 receptors causing positive inotropic and chronotropic effects

Dopamine

44

Will increase inotropy, chronotropy and cause some bronchodilation

Isoproterenol

45

Available as a solution for injection 1:1000 (mg/mL)

Epinephrine

46

Available as a solution for infection 1:5000 or 0.2 (mg/mL)

Isoproterenol

47

Selective alpha 1 agonist

Phenylephrine

48

Non-selective beta agonist

Ractopamine and Zilpaterol

49

Selective beta 2 agonist

Albuterol, Clenbuterol, Terbutaline and Isoxuprine

50

Treats hypotension/shock by increasing peripheral vascular resistance

Phenylephrine

51

Nasal decongestion that can be used locally to cause vasoconstriction

Phenylephrine

52

Referred to as partitioning agents to reduce fat deposition and increase muscle deposition in late finishing meat producing animals

Ractopamine and Zilpaterol

53

Poor oral absorption; good mucosal absorption via inhalation

Albuterol

54

Used to treat bronchoconstriction in horses (COPD) and cats (asthma)

Albuterol

55

Oral syrup used for equines to manage COPD

Clenbuterol

56

Used more often as an oral to treat bronchoconstriction in small animals

Terbutaline

57

Beta-2 agonist that acts as a peripheral vasodilator and causes uterine relaxation

Isoxsuprine

58

Typically used for their CNS effects

Indirect Acting Sympathomimetics

59

Prevents re-uptake of 5-HT

Clomipramine

60

Prevents re-uptake of 5-HT; metabolites inhibit norepinephrine reuptake; also used as an antihistamine

Doxepin

61

Primarily inhibits Monoamine Oxidase (MAO)

Selegeline

62

Blocks norepinephrine re-uptake

Cocaine

63

Increase norepinephrine release

Amphetamine

64

Primarily acts indirectly through increased release of NE in the bladder neck/urethra, also has direct alpha-1

Phenylpropanolamine

65

Non-specific alpha antagonist

Phenoxybenzamine

66

Primary action indirect release of NE and some direct alpha 1 and beta activation

Ephedrine

67

Used to treat urinary retention by relaxing the internal urethral sphincter (smooth muscle)

Phenoxybenzamine

68

Used as a CRI to maintain blood pressure under anesthesia

Ephedrine

69

Treats urinary incontinence due to urethral sphincter hypotonus (sphincter incompetence)

Phenylpropanolamine

70

used to manage pheochromocytoma

Phenoxybenzamine

71

Alpha 1 antagonist

Prazosin

72

Non-selective beta antagonist (may actually be an inverse antagonist)

Propanolol

73

Beta-1 selective antagonists

Atenolol, Esmolol

74

Commonly used as antihypertensive (vasodilator)

Prazosin

75

Will cause bradycardia through decrease firing of the SA node, decreased AV node conduction, decreased cardiac output and mycocardial oxygen demand, and increase airway resistance

Propanolol

76

Less effect on beta-2 receptors so better choice in patients with bronchial disease

Atenolol

77

Does not cross BBB

Atenolol and Esmolol

78

Short duration; used IV for controlling arrhythmias

Esmolol

79

Readily crosses BBB and used to treat tachyarrhythmias (supraventricular) such as Feline hyperthryoidism or treatment of methylxanthine (chocolate) toxicosis

Propanolol

80

Reduces NE uptake, reduced storage of NE and mediator depletion. Calming agent for equines

Reserpine