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Flashcards in Exam 1 Flashcards Deck (113):
1

What is an HDC?

Highly developed country.

2

What are some characteristics of HDC?

1. High levels of industrialization
2. low population growth
3. per capita consumption
4. Low birth rates
5. Low infant mortality
6. Low fertility rate
7. Fertility rate is at or below replacement level fertility

3

What is an LDC?

Less developed country.

4

What are some characteristics of LDC?

1. Low levels of industrialization
2. high population growth
3. extreme poverty
4. High infant mortality rate
5. low life expectancy
6. Low literacy
7. low per capita income
8. Very high total fertility rate (TFR)

5

Ecological footprint

Average amount of land, water and ocean required to provide a person with all the resources they consume

6

What does IPAT stand for?

Impact, population, affluence, technology

7

what is the IPAT equation?

Impact= population * consumption / per person * impact / per unit consumption

8

Sustainability

The ability to meet current human needs without compromising the needs of future generations

9

What is a systems approach to modeling the world?

A set of components interacting to function as a whole

10

How does the ecological footprint approach differ from IPAT in measuring human environmental impacts?

The ecological footprint measures someones individual effects on the environment and the IPAT measures a huge group of people.

11

Aral Sea Disaster

One of the worst environmental disasters on the planet
- 92% of water withdrawals
- Water diversion for agriculture
- World’s 4th largest inland water body
- Brackish: 10 g/L
- Irrigation: 5 to 7.9 million hectares
- 8% of size (2015

12

Carrying Capacity (k)

Max number of individuals an environment can support indefinitely, without environmental impact

13

Demography

The science of human population structure and growth

14

Total Fertility Rate (TFR)

Avg. # of children born per woman

15

Replacement level fertility

# of children required for parents to replace themselves

16

Crude birth rate (CBR)

Annual # of live births per 1,000 population

17

Crude death rate (CDR)

Annual # of deaths per thousand individuals

18

Net migration rate

Annual immigration – Annual emigration per 1,000 individuals

19

Fertility Transition

Brings about population stability.

- Requires changes in social, cultural, and economic factors that influence TFR

20

The geography of urbanization

Creation and growth of urban areas

21

Poverty Indicators: MDGs

UN Millennium Development Goals (2000-2015)
- 8 Goals, 15 targets, 48 quantitative indicators to reduce extreme poverty

22

What is an MDG indicator?

Proxy measures of a system
1. Measure progress
2. Highlight neediest areas
3. Raise public awareness

23

Sustainable Development Indicators: SDGs

2016-2030
17 goals, 169 indicators
The main pillars of SDGs are...
- Poverty reduction
- quality of life
- environmental protection

24

What are the trends, spatial patterns, and leading indicators of modern population patterns?

1. Fertility: TFR & birth rates highest in LDCs

2. Mortality: CMR highest, life expectancies lowest in LDCs

3. Migration: net migration generally positive in HDCs, negative in LDCs

4. Population growth: highest in LDCs, lowest in HDCs

25

What are SDGs? What are they useful for?

Sustainable Development Goals.

1. They provide a roadmap for countries to develop in environmentally and socially sustainable ways.

2. The SDG program applies to both MDCs and LDCs.

3. The overriding goal of this program/focus is to insure social justice as well.

4. SDGs follow the UN's MDGs (Millennium Development Goals) which were in place from 2000-2015.

26

Urbanization: What are the temporal and geographic trends? What are the effects?

Temporal trends:
- start with high birth and death rate but as they become more developed, both of those get lower and lower and population growth stabilizes at a constant and increasing population growth.

Geographic trends:
- Centralized population in cities and places of urbanization, and the more and more an area becomes developed and urbanized the more centralized the population will be

Effects:
- effects the land, water, air, population, and demographics while also increasing the pollution to the urbanized area.

27

Describe leading strategies for slowing population growth

1. Information on sexuality, contraception, STDs, parenting

2. Experiment in Matlab(1974-1996)
- Fertility decline of 15%
- Health, earnings, household asset indicators increased

3. China’s One Child Policy
- 1979-2015
- Incentives, penalties to promote later marriages and 1-child families

28

population pyramid

A graphical illustration that shows the distribution of various age groups in a population, which forms the shape of a pyramid when the population is growing

29

demographic transition

The transition from high birth and death rates to lower birth and death rates as a country or region develops from a pre-industrial to an industrialized economic system

30

Species

group of distinct organisms capable of interbreeding in the wild

31

Biodiversity

Variability among organisms that comprise a biological community

32

Species richness

Number of species in a community

33

Ecosystem services

Benefits people obtain from natural ecosystems

34

What are the 4 ecosystem services?

Provisioning: can be extracted from nature ( food production, water, wood and fiber, fuel)

Cultural: non-material social benefits (spirit, aesthetic, educational, recreational)

Regulating: moderate natural processes ( climate regulation, food regulation, water purification)

Supporting: enables other services to work (nutrient cycling, soil formation, habitat provision, primary production)

35

Species extinction

Death of last individual in a species

36

Endangered Species

imminent danger of extinction across its range

37

Threatened species

population has declined to the point that it may be at risk of extinction

38

Biodiversity hotspots

Biological environments home to many endemic species

39

Habitat loss: fragmentation

Breakup of large habitats into small isolated patches

40

invasive species

Exotic species that cause environmental/economic harm

41

Preservation

Protect natural resources from use

42

Conservation

Controlled use of natural resources

43

Ecological restoration

Assist recovery of degraded or damaged ecosystems

44

How do the three main levels of biodiversity differ?

1. Genetic Diversity
- Within-species gene variability
- Increases adaptability to change
- Foundation of all biodiversity

2. Species richness
- within ecosystem

3. Ecosystem diversity
- within region

45

Explain the leading causes of biodiversity decline

Habitat destruction such as deforestation or overpopulation. We are talking away living areas for animals.

46

Describe the leading approaches and policies to protect biodiversity

Preservation
Conservation
Ecological Restoration

47

How can biodiversity be measured?

Species richness
species density
extinction rate
habitat fragmentation
amphibians
mapping

48

How can GIS help us better understand biodiversity?

They can help us understand effects of fragmentation & habitat degradation on biodiversity

49

mass extinctions

BOOOOOK

50

Endemic Species

Endemic species are plants and animals that exist only in one geographic region

51

GIS

A software tool to capture, store, manage, analyze, and display geographic information on a map

52

Land Degradation

Deterioration of the productive capacity of land

53

Deforestation

Clearance of large forest expanses

54

Desertification

Loss of soil moisture so that most/all vegetative productivity is lost

55

Ecosystem restoration

Return of degraded landscape to a functional and sustainable state

56

Remote Sensing

Science of obtaining information about objects or areas from a distance, typically from aircraft or satellites

57

Describe the relationship between poverty and land degradation.

Poverty...increased population...increased need for food...inappropriate use of marginal land...non-sustatinable land management...land degradation...reduced productivity

58

Describe and give examples of ecosystem services lost in forest, rangeland, and wetland environments.

Forests:

Ranglands:

Wetlands: BOOOKOKOKOKOOK

59

What are the causes and consequences of land degradation?

Causes:
- poverty
- limited land resources
- Forest clearing
- Cultivating on steep slopes
- Overgrazing rangelands
- Excessive fertilizer application

Consequences:
- loss of biodiversity
- loss of rich, fertile soil

60

Describe some leading solutions to reverse land degradation

Preservation
Conservation
Restoration
Afforestation
Reforestation

61

sustainable forestry

Forest management that seeks to conserve forests for the commercial harvest of timber and nonmember products AND protects biological diversity, soil, prevents soil erosion, and preserves watersheds that produce clean water.

62

Biomes

Distinct regions of climate, soil, and vegetation

Ex. forest, grassland, desert, tundra, water

63

Reforestation

The natural or intentional restocking of existing forests and woodlands that have been depleted, usually through deforestation.

64

Afforestation

The establishment of a forest or stand of trees in an area where there was no previous tree cover

65

What is a quote about foot security by the FAO

“When all people at all times have access to sufficient, safe, nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life.” -FAO

66

Famine

Severe temporary food shortage

67

Food deserts

“Areas that lack access to affordable fruits, vegetables, whole grains, low-fat milk, and other foods that make up the full range of a healthy diet.“ -(CDC)

68

Substance agriculture

Raising crops & livestock to meet own needs

69

Industrialized agriculture

Modern agriculture methods that require large capital input, and less land and labor

70

Animal Production -CAFOs

Industrial production increasingly in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs)

71

Sustainable Agriculture –Environmental Dimensions

Ag methods that maintain soil productivity and ecological balance with minimal long-term impacts

72

Aquaculture

Growing of aquatic organisms for human consumption

73

What are the effects of food insecurity?

Stunting and physical development
cognitive impairment
anemia
weakened immune system
mortality

74

In what ways is subsistence farming different from industrialized?

Industrialized agriculture requires a large capital input (for fossil fuels, equipments, and agricultural chemicals) and less land/ human labor than traditional methods.

Subsistence agriculture depends on labor and a large amount of land to produce enough food to feed oneself and one's family.

75

What are the main pros and cons of industrialized agriculture?

Pros: increased production and less labor

Cons:
- pesticide & nutrient pollution
- fossil fuel dependence
- expansion into fragile soils
- soil salinization
- biodiversity loss
- water scarcity

76

Describe the Green Revolution

Genetic engineering towards food, which leads to genetically modified foods and animal production

77

What are the main characteristics of sustainable agriculture?

1. Enhance soil health and fertility

2. increases biodiversity

3. manage wetlands and water resources carefully

4. increases biological diversity in crops and livestock to

5. enhance food security

6. animals are treated humanely and are allowed natural behaviors like grazing

7. not dependent on government subsidies

8. Farmers paid a fair wage

9. workers treated fairly

10. safe working environment

78

Why are natural fish stocks declining?

Land degradation
pollution
overharvesting
technology

79

food security

When all people at all times have access to sufficient, safe, nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life

80

Food desert

BOOOKOKOOKOKo

81

Norman Borlaug

“Father of the Green Revolution”

82

Amartya Sen

A man who studied famine causation

83

What does the systems approach to modeling the world allow for examination of?

Earth’s components & processes
Interaction
sImpacts on other components(feedbacks)

84

What are some some of the system impacts in the Aral Sea disaster that are environmental?

1. Salinity: 70 g/L (2003)
2. Groundwater drawdown
3. Microclimate:
- Temperature extremes, rainfall, drought
- Feedback: evaporation-surface T
4. Declines in growing season
5. Declines in biodiversity
6. Declines in wetlands

85

What are some some of the system impacts in the Aral Sea disaster that are economic?

1. Fishery collapse: saltwater carp, flounder, catfish
2. Shipping collapse
3. Agriculture (soil salinity)
4. Tourism
5. Jobs

86

What are some some of the system impacts in the Aral Sea disaster that are reflective off human health?

1. Testing ground for biological weapons
2. United with mainland in 2001
3. Seabed exposed
4. Dietary changes
5. Air
6. Drinking water
7. Pollution

87

Describe how early humans lived.

1. Lived as nomadic “hunter-gatherers”

2. Population growth low/zero

3. Limits to growth: food availability, disease, predators, climate

4. Low environmental impact

88

Describe the agricultural revolution.

~10,000 BCE

1. Developed crop agriculture & animal domestication
- Permanent settlements
- Social classes, technology
- More food production and higher k

2. Limits to growth:
-disease, crop failures

3. Environmental impact increased

89

Describe the industrial revolution.

Late 1700s

1. Development of fossil fuel burning machines
- More work could be done
- Mass food production
- Economic growth

2. Increased k for human population again

3. Population grew dramatically

4. Major economic expansion

5. Consumption of nonrenewable resources

6. Growing environmental impacts
- Pollution from industry, high populations, energy use
- Depletion of soil, forest, mineral resources

90

Describe the Medical Revolution.

1800s –early 1900s

1. Disease & modes of transmission identified

2. Better sanitation

3. Better medical care
- prevention, treatment

4. Results:
- Birth rates stayed high, mortality plummeted
- Life expectancy soared
- High population growth
- Increased k

91

Describe the Green Revolution.

1960s

1. Fast growing & disease resistant crop varieties
- Dramatically increased food production
- Chemical fertilizers, pesticides, irrigation, multiple cropping
- Increased economic growth

2. Further assured food supply, raising k

3. Exponential pop. growth

4. High environmental impact

92

Urbanization

The process of making an area more urban or city like

93

What are the 3 components of biodiversity?

1. Genetic diversity
2.Species richness
3. Ecosystem diversity

94

What are some solutions to food insecurity?

1. Eliminate poverty
2. Eliminate hunger
3. Eliminate food insecurity
4 .Eliminate malnutrition
5 .And also the ability to manage natural resources
- Food banks and soup kitchens

95

What are the benefits and consequences of aquaculture?

Benefits:
- Great potential to supply food

Consequences:
- Near-shore pens
- Genetically homogenous
- Escapees in the tens of millions
- May degrade natural coastal habitats

96

Why is it impossible to determine the carrying capacity for humans?

Quality of life and quantity of people are intertwined

97

In the past two centuries, what has contributed most significantly to increasing human population growth?

decreased death rates

98

Which statement about the relationship between economics and population growth is true?

Economic growth in LDCs would generally benefit from slower population growth

99

What is the goal of the Millennium Villages Project?

To transfer management of development projects to rural communities

100

High fertility rates are often encouraged in LDCs for each of the following reasons, except:

Low national life expectancy

101

An age structure diagram shaped like a pyramid is characteristic of a country with:

an increasing rate of population growth`

102

Most of the species currently facing extinction are threatened because of:

human activity

103

Biodiversity hotspots:

are home to nearly 20% of the world's population

104

Habitat corridors are beneficial for each of the following reasons, except:

prevents the spread of disease among populations

105

What step must biologists undertake prior to reintroducing captive-bred animals into the wild?

determine what factors originally caused the species to become endangered

106

All of the following are examples of ecosystem services, except:

decomposition
seed banks
pollination
maintenance of soil fertility
prevention of soil erosion

seed banks

107

The following are associations between a poached animal and its associated item on the black market. Identify the mismatch.

rhinoceros – liver
bears – gall bladder
gorilla – bushmeat
caimans – skin
birds – pets

rhinoceros – liver

108

Which of the following statements about sustainable agriculture is false?

a. it relies on beneficial biological processes and environmentally friendly chemicals.

b. a principal goal is to preserve soil fertility.

c. it excludes subsistence farming

d. it involves diversification of crops and livestock.

e. it includes water conservation

it excludes subsistence farming

109

Which of the following statements about genetic diversity is false?

a. Low genetic diversity increases vulnerability to environmental change

b. Much of genetic diversity is lost due to domestication

c. Wild plant and animal populations generally have high genetic diversity

d. Domestication includes selection of traits not of obvious value to humans

e. The majority of vegetable crops grown in the U.S. are of only a few varieties

Domestication includes selection of traits not of obvious value to humans

110

Concern over the routine use of antibiotics in raising livestock centers around:

increased bacterial resistance to antibiotics

111

To optimize the quality and productivity of their "crops," aquaculture farmers control all of the following except:

market prices

112

Subsistence agriculture includes all of the following practices except:

nomadic herding
high fossil fuel inputs
shifting cultivation
intercropping
slash-and-burn agriculture

high fossil fuel inputs

113

All of the following factors contribute to declines in global stocks of grain, except:

increasing demand for meat
extreme weather
human migration from productive growing areas
Increasing affluence
Increased use of crops for biofuel production

human migration from productive growing areas