Flashcards in Exam 1 Flashcards Deck (113):
What is an HDC?
Highly developed country.
What are some characteristics of HDC?
1. High levels of industrialization
2. low population growth
3. per capita consumption
4. Low birth rates
5. Low infant mortality
6. Low fertility rate
7. Fertility rate is at or below replacement level fertility
What is an LDC?
Less developed country.
What are some characteristics of LDC?
1. Low levels of industrialization
2. high population growth
3. extreme poverty
4. High infant mortality rate
5. low life expectancy
6. Low literacy
7. low per capita income
8. Very high total fertility rate (TFR)
Average amount of land, water and ocean required to provide a person with all the resources they consume
What does IPAT stand for?
Impact, population, affluence, technology
what is the IPAT equation?
Impact= population * consumption / per person * impact / per unit consumption
The ability to meet current human needs without compromising the needs of future generations
What is a systems approach to modeling the world?
A set of components interacting to function as a whole
How does the ecological footprint approach differ from IPAT in measuring human environmental impacts?
The ecological footprint measures someones individual effects on the environment and the IPAT measures a huge group of people.
Aral Sea Disaster
One of the worst environmental disasters on the planet
- 92% of water withdrawals
- Water diversion for agriculture
- World’s 4th largest inland water body
- Brackish: 10 g/L
- Irrigation: 5 to 7.9 million hectares
- 8% of size (2015
Carrying Capacity (k)
Max number of individuals an environment can support indefinitely, without environmental impact
The science of human population structure and growth
Total Fertility Rate (TFR)
Avg. # of children born per woman
Replacement level fertility
# of children required for parents to replace themselves
Crude birth rate (CBR)
Annual # of live births per 1,000 population
Crude death rate (CDR)
Annual # of deaths per thousand individuals
Net migration rate
Annual immigration – Annual emigration per 1,000 individuals
Brings about population stability.
- Requires changes in social, cultural, and economic factors that influence TFR
The geography of urbanization
Creation and growth of urban areas
Poverty Indicators: MDGs
UN Millennium Development Goals (2000-2015)
- 8 Goals, 15 targets, 48 quantitative indicators to reduce extreme poverty
What is an MDG indicator?
Proxy measures of a system
1. Measure progress
2. Highlight neediest areas
3. Raise public awareness
Sustainable Development Indicators: SDGs
17 goals, 169 indicators
The main pillars of SDGs are...
- Poverty reduction
- quality of life
- environmental protection
What are the trends, spatial patterns, and leading indicators of modern population patterns?
1. Fertility: TFR & birth rates highest in LDCs
2. Mortality: CMR highest, life expectancies lowest in LDCs
3. Migration: net migration generally positive in HDCs, negative in LDCs
4. Population growth: highest in LDCs, lowest in HDCs
What are SDGs? What are they useful for?
Sustainable Development Goals.
1. They provide a roadmap for countries to develop in environmentally and socially sustainable ways.
2. The SDG program applies to both MDCs and LDCs.
3. The overriding goal of this program/focus is to insure social justice as well.
4. SDGs follow the UN's MDGs (Millennium Development Goals) which were in place from 2000-2015.
Urbanization: What are the temporal and geographic trends? What are the effects?
- start with high birth and death rate but as they become more developed, both of those get lower and lower and population growth stabilizes at a constant and increasing population growth.
- Centralized population in cities and places of urbanization, and the more and more an area becomes developed and urbanized the more centralized the population will be
- effects the land, water, air, population, and demographics while also increasing the pollution to the urbanized area.
Describe leading strategies for slowing population growth
1. Information on sexuality, contraception, STDs, parenting
2. Experiment in Matlab(1974-1996)
- Fertility decline of 15%
- Health, earnings, household asset indicators increased
3. China’s One Child Policy
- Incentives, penalties to promote later marriages and 1-child families
A graphical illustration that shows the distribution of various age groups in a population, which forms the shape of a pyramid when the population is growing
The transition from high birth and death rates to lower birth and death rates as a country or region develops from a pre-industrial to an industrialized economic system
group of distinct organisms capable of interbreeding in the wild
Variability among organisms that comprise a biological community
Number of species in a community
Benefits people obtain from natural ecosystems
What are the 4 ecosystem services?
Provisioning: can be extracted from nature ( food production, water, wood and fiber, fuel)
Cultural: non-material social benefits (spirit, aesthetic, educational, recreational)
Regulating: moderate natural processes ( climate regulation, food regulation, water purification)
Supporting: enables other services to work (nutrient cycling, soil formation, habitat provision, primary production)
Death of last individual in a species
imminent danger of extinction across its range
population has declined to the point that it may be at risk of extinction
Biological environments home to many endemic species
Habitat loss: fragmentation
Breakup of large habitats into small isolated patches
Exotic species that cause environmental/economic harm
Protect natural resources from use
Controlled use of natural resources
Assist recovery of degraded or damaged ecosystems
How do the three main levels of biodiversity differ?
1. Genetic Diversity
- Within-species gene variability
- Increases adaptability to change
- Foundation of all biodiversity
2. Species richness
- within ecosystem
3. Ecosystem diversity
- within region
Explain the leading causes of biodiversity decline
Habitat destruction such as deforestation or overpopulation. We are talking away living areas for animals.
Describe the leading approaches and policies to protect biodiversity
How can biodiversity be measured?
How can GIS help us better understand biodiversity?
They can help us understand effects of fragmentation & habitat degradation on biodiversity
Endemic species are plants and animals that exist only in one geographic region
A software tool to capture, store, manage, analyze, and display geographic information on a map
Deterioration of the productive capacity of land
Clearance of large forest expanses
Loss of soil moisture so that most/all vegetative productivity is lost
Return of degraded landscape to a functional and sustainable state
Science of obtaining information about objects or areas from a distance, typically from aircraft or satellites
Describe the relationship between poverty and land degradation.
Poverty...increased population...increased need for food...inappropriate use of marginal land...non-sustatinable land management...land degradation...reduced productivity
Describe and give examples of ecosystem services lost in forest, rangeland, and wetland environments.
What are the causes and consequences of land degradation?
- limited land resources
- Forest clearing
- Cultivating on steep slopes
- Overgrazing rangelands
- Excessive fertilizer application
- loss of biodiversity
- loss of rich, fertile soil
Describe some leading solutions to reverse land degradation
Forest management that seeks to conserve forests for the commercial harvest of timber and nonmember products AND protects biological diversity, soil, prevents soil erosion, and preserves watersheds that produce clean water.
Distinct regions of climate, soil, and vegetation
Ex. forest, grassland, desert, tundra, water
The natural or intentional restocking of existing forests and woodlands that have been depleted, usually through deforestation.
The establishment of a forest or stand of trees in an area where there was no previous tree cover
What is a quote about foot security by the FAO
“When all people at all times have access to sufficient, safe, nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life.” -FAO
Severe temporary food shortage
“Areas that lack access to affordable fruits, vegetables, whole grains, low-fat milk, and other foods that make up the full range of a healthy diet.“ -(CDC)
Raising crops & livestock to meet own needs
Modern agriculture methods that require large capital input, and less land and labor
Animal Production -CAFOs
Industrial production increasingly in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs)
Sustainable Agriculture –Environmental Dimensions
Ag methods that maintain soil productivity and ecological balance with minimal long-term impacts
Growing of aquatic organisms for human consumption
What are the effects of food insecurity?
Stunting and physical development
weakened immune system
In what ways is subsistence farming different from industrialized?
Industrialized agriculture requires a large capital input (for fossil fuels, equipments, and agricultural chemicals) and less land/ human labor than traditional methods.
Subsistence agriculture depends on labor and a large amount of land to produce enough food to feed oneself and one's family.
What are the main pros and cons of industrialized agriculture?
Pros: increased production and less labor
- pesticide & nutrient pollution
- fossil fuel dependence
- expansion into fragile soils
- soil salinization
- biodiversity loss
- water scarcity
Describe the Green Revolution
Genetic engineering towards food, which leads to genetically modified foods and animal production
What are the main characteristics of sustainable agriculture?
1. Enhance soil health and fertility
2. increases biodiversity
3. manage wetlands and water resources carefully
4. increases biological diversity in crops and livestock to
5. enhance food security
6. animals are treated humanely and are allowed natural behaviors like grazing
7. not dependent on government subsidies
8. Farmers paid a fair wage
9. workers treated fairly
10. safe working environment
Why are natural fish stocks declining?
When all people at all times have access to sufficient, safe, nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life
“Father of the Green Revolution”
A man who studied famine causation
What does the systems approach to modeling the world allow for examination of?
Earth’s components & processes
sImpacts on other components(feedbacks)
What are some some of the system impacts in the Aral Sea disaster that are environmental?
1. Salinity: 70 g/L (2003)
2. Groundwater drawdown
- Temperature extremes, rainfall, drought
- Feedback: evaporation-surface T
4. Declines in growing season
5. Declines in biodiversity
6. Declines in wetlands
What are some some of the system impacts in the Aral Sea disaster that are economic?
1. Fishery collapse: saltwater carp, flounder, catfish
2. Shipping collapse
3. Agriculture (soil salinity)
What are some some of the system impacts in the Aral Sea disaster that are reflective off human health?
1. Testing ground for biological weapons
2. United with mainland in 2001
3. Seabed exposed
4. Dietary changes
6. Drinking water
Describe how early humans lived.
1. Lived as nomadic “hunter-gatherers”
2. Population growth low/zero
3. Limits to growth: food availability, disease, predators, climate
4. Low environmental impact
Describe the agricultural revolution.
1. Developed crop agriculture & animal domestication
- Permanent settlements
- Social classes, technology
- More food production and higher k
2. Limits to growth:
-disease, crop failures
3. Environmental impact increased
Describe the industrial revolution.
1. Development of fossil fuel burning machines
- More work could be done
- Mass food production
- Economic growth
2. Increased k for human population again
3. Population grew dramatically
4. Major economic expansion
5. Consumption of nonrenewable resources
6. Growing environmental impacts
- Pollution from industry, high populations, energy use
- Depletion of soil, forest, mineral resources
Describe the Medical Revolution.
1800s –early 1900s
1. Disease & modes of transmission identified
2. Better sanitation
3. Better medical care
- prevention, treatment
- Birth rates stayed high, mortality plummeted
- Life expectancy soared
- High population growth
- Increased k
Describe the Green Revolution.
1. Fast growing & disease resistant crop varieties
- Dramatically increased food production
- Chemical fertilizers, pesticides, irrigation, multiple cropping
- Increased economic growth
2. Further assured food supply, raising k
3. Exponential pop. growth
4. High environmental impact
The process of making an area more urban or city like
What are the 3 components of biodiversity?
1. Genetic diversity
3. Ecosystem diversity
What are some solutions to food insecurity?
1. Eliminate poverty
2. Eliminate hunger
3. Eliminate food insecurity
4 .Eliminate malnutrition
5 .And also the ability to manage natural resources
- Food banks and soup kitchens
What are the benefits and consequences of aquaculture?
- Great potential to supply food
- Near-shore pens
- Genetically homogenous
- Escapees in the tens of millions
- May degrade natural coastal habitats
Why is it impossible to determine the carrying capacity for humans?
Quality of life and quantity of people are intertwined
In the past two centuries, what has contributed most significantly to increasing human population growth?
decreased death rates
Which statement about the relationship between economics and population growth is true?
Economic growth in LDCs would generally benefit from slower population growth
What is the goal of the Millennium Villages Project?
To transfer management of development projects to rural communities
High fertility rates are often encouraged in LDCs for each of the following reasons, except:
Low national life expectancy
An age structure diagram shaped like a pyramid is characteristic of a country with:
an increasing rate of population growth`
Most of the species currently facing extinction are threatened because of:
are home to nearly 20% of the world's population
Habitat corridors are beneficial for each of the following reasons, except:
prevents the spread of disease among populations
What step must biologists undertake prior to reintroducing captive-bred animals into the wild?
determine what factors originally caused the species to become endangered
All of the following are examples of ecosystem services, except:
maintenance of soil fertility
prevention of soil erosion
The following are associations between a poached animal and its associated item on the black market. Identify the mismatch.
rhinoceros – liver
bears – gall bladder
gorilla – bushmeat
caimans – skin
birds – pets
rhinoceros – liver
Which of the following statements about sustainable agriculture is false?
a. it relies on beneficial biological processes and environmentally friendly chemicals.
b. a principal goal is to preserve soil fertility.
c. it excludes subsistence farming
d. it involves diversification of crops and livestock.
e. it includes water conservation
it excludes subsistence farming
Which of the following statements about genetic diversity is false?
a. Low genetic diversity increases vulnerability to environmental change
b. Much of genetic diversity is lost due to domestication
c. Wild plant and animal populations generally have high genetic diversity
d. Domestication includes selection of traits not of obvious value to humans
e. The majority of vegetable crops grown in the U.S. are of only a few varieties
Domestication includes selection of traits not of obvious value to humans
Concern over the routine use of antibiotics in raising livestock centers around:
increased bacterial resistance to antibiotics
To optimize the quality and productivity of their "crops," aquaculture farmers control all of the following except:
Subsistence agriculture includes all of the following practices except:
high fossil fuel inputs
high fossil fuel inputs