what is fibrinolysis?
3rd phase of hemostasis. (clot breakdown)
what are some of the treatment options for hyperkalemia?
stabilize heart with IV calcium
give IV insulin and glucose
what is the least effective volume expander?
crystalloid b/c only 1/3 will remain IV
most common congenital bleeding disorder
more severe form of hemophilia?
B "Chirstmas Disease"
why shouldn't you use LR when administering blood products?
it contains Ca2+ which interacts with the citrate in PRBC and initiates clotting.
what kind of EKG changes are seen with hypocalcemia?
long QT interval or heart block
what is the etiology of Cl- depletion alkalosis?
pt with low Cl- levels, will hold on to HCO3 in the kidneys and citrate in PRBCs will be converted to HCO3 in liver.
anatomy of nephron
adverse effects of anemia
reduced O2 transport; weakness; fatigue; secondary organ failure
pathophysiology of pheochromocytomas
catecholamine-secreting tumor of the adrenal medulla
what is in cryoprecipitate?
The fraction of plasma that precipitates when FFP is thawed Each bag of Cryo contains ~ 200 mg of fibrinogen and 100 units of Factor VIII (80 to 110 IU)
what electrolyte disturbance can cause "U waves?"
match the following disease with its hormonal abnormality
1.too much aldosterone
2. hypoplasia of thymus
3.too much cortisol
4.deficiency of aldosterone synthetase
1. Conn syndrome
SBO (small bowel obstruction) and electrolyte disturbances
Causes N & V --> dehydration and loss of electrolytes (K+, Cl-, Na+)
pathophysiology of hemophilia A and B
Deficiency of FVIII = Hemophilia A Deficiency of FIX = Hemophilia B
causes of sickle cell crisis
dehydration; infection; increased O2 demand
effects of insulin the morning of surgery
anion gap calculation
Na - (Cl + HCO3)
cause of Diabetes insipidus?
neurogenic (lack of vasopressin secretion) or nephrogenic (decreased response to vasopressin)
normal PT lab values
Normal: 10-14 seconds
treatment for lactic acidosis
THAM: tromethamine & O2 delivery
causes of respiratory acidosis
Alveolar hypoventilation, High PaCO2 Etiologies variable Lung disease Increased metabolic demand Multiple etiologies: neurologic, pharmacologic, trauma, sepsis, cardiac, pulmonary, etc.
indication of autonomic neuropathy
can be caused by DM --> problems with orthostatic hypotension