Exam 1: NLMEB stuff Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 1: NLMEB stuff Deck (55):
1

What is the relative normal % of neutrophils?

50 -- 70%

2

What does an abnormally high amount of neutrophils indicate?

- bacterial infections (typically within the range of 85 -- 90%)
- stress
- burns. trauma

3

What is the relative normal % of lymphocytes?

18 -- 42%

4

What does an abnormally high amount of lymphocytes indicate?

viral infections

5

What is the relative normal % of monocytes?

2 -- 11%

6

What does an abnormally high amount of monocytes indicate?

- Rheumatoid arthritis
- severe infections

7

What is the relative normal % of eosinophils?

0 -- 4%

(or 1 -- 3%)

8

What does an abnormally high amount of eosinophils indicate?

- parasites
- allergies
- asthma

9

What is the relative normal % of basophils?

0 -- 2%

10

What does an abnormally high amount of basophils indicate?

- **immediate hypersensitivity reactions**
- **CML patients**
- asthma attack

11

List the granulocytes.

1. Neutrophils
2. Eosinophils
3. Basophils

12

What is the normal range of segmented neutrophils?

50 -- 70%

13

How big are segmented neutrophils?

About 10 -- 16 microns

14

What is the lifespan of segmented neutrophils?

About 7 hours

15

Describe the nucleus of segmented neutrophils.

- dark purple
- typically 2 -- 5 segmented lobes

16

Describe the cytoplasm of segmented neutrophils.

- light pink/neutral color
- has secondary granules
- has lysosomes, myeloperoxidase

17

What are the 3 steps of phagocytosis?

1. Migration
2. Opsonization
3. Phagocytosis

18

What is involved in the migration step of phagocytosis?

- chemoattractants
- chemotaxis
- diapedesis

19

What are chemoattractants?

- responsible for attracting neutrophils
- involved in the migration step of phagocytosis

20

What is chemotaxis?

- movement toward bacteria
- involved in the migration step of phagocytosis

21

What is diapedesis?

- ability of neutrophils to squeeze through lining cells
- involved in the migration step of phagocytosis

22

What happens in opsonization?

- bacteria (or fungi, etc.) is coated with immunoglobulins and/or complement
- once coated: the neutrophils recognize receptors and attach (like lock and key)

23

Fun fact: The term "opsonin" is Greek for ___.

"prepare for dining"

24

**What are the 2 ways in which phagocytosis occurs?

1. oxygen-dependent mode
2. non-oxygen-dependent mode

25

**What happens during the oxygen-dependent mode of phagocytosis?

- releases NADPH oxidase
- respiratory burst

- check dis equation:
superoxide & hydrogen peroxide
+ myeloperoxidase
= bleach (hypochlorous acid)

26

**What happens during the non-oxygen-dependent mode of phagocytosis?

- change in pH
- release of lysomal and proteolytic enzymes

27

What is the normal range of banded neutrophils?

0 -- 5%

28

Describe the cytoplasm of banded neutrophils.

the same as segmented neutrophils lol

29

What does an abnormally high amount of neutrophils indicate?

increased levels (ex: 15%) indicate the same as elevated segs would, except with more severity

30

How big are eosinophils?

About 13 microns

31

Describe the nucleus of eosinophils.

- mostly bi-lobed
- dark purple

32

Describe the cytoplasm of eosinophils.

- orange granules, which contain:
# histamine
# MBP
# NO lysosomes**

33

What does MBP mean?

Major Basic Protein

34

Explain the stability of eosinophil levels.

Eosinophils undergo diurnal variation.

Diurnal variation: increased levels at night, decreased levels in the morning

35

How big are basophils?

About 10 microns

36

Describe the nucleus of basophils.

- bi-lobed, but heavily covered with dark blue/purple granules which contain:
# heparin
# histamine

37

What is difficult about the granules of basophils?

Their granules are water-soluble.

The granules can wash away, thus making it more difficult to identify.

38

Explain the stability of basophil levels.

Basophils undergo diurnal variation.

Diurnal variation: increased levels at night, decreased levels in the morning

39

Explain immediate hypersensitivity reactions.

- example: anaphylactic seizure
- indicated by increased basophil levels

40

Explain CML.

- Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia
- indicated by very increased basophil levels

41

Explain asthma attack (severe).

- indicated by increased basophil levels
- acute one or really intense chronic one

42

List the non-granulocytes.

1. Lymphocytes
2. Monocytes

43

What is the normal range of lymphocytes in adults?

20 -- 44%

44

What is the normal range of lymphocytes in children?

25 -- 55%

45

Why is the normal range of lymphocytes higher in children than they are in adults?

This is because the immune system is still developing in children.

46

How big are lymphocytes?

- about 7 -- 10 microns (mostly)
- about the same size as RBCs

47

Describe the nucleus of lymphocytes.

chromatin is clumped

48

Describe the cytoplasm of lymphocytes.

- pale blue
- NO granules

49

What is the N:C ratio of lymphocytes?

4 : 1

Nucleus takes up a majority of cell space

50

What is the lifespan of lymphocytes?

- some can live for years
- think of the memory cells

51

What might reactive lymphocytes indicate?

Infectious mononucleosis

52

How big are monocytes?

About 14 -- 20 microns

53

Describe the nucleus of monocytes.

kidney-bean shape

54

Describe the cytoplasm of monocytes.

- dull, gray-blue color
- has fine red granules
# ground glass appearance
- DOES have vacuoles

55

What other cells can monocytes be mistaken for?

They can be mistaken for large lymphocytes.

To differentiate between them:
- Check cytoplasm (a little more transparent in lymphs)
- Lymphs are indented by RBCs whereas monos are not