Exam 1 Questions Flashcards Preview

Spinal Anatomy Summer 2015 > Exam 1 Questions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 1 Questions Deck (337)
1

what is the function of each type of bone cell?

osteoblast- form bone
osteocyte- maintain or bone nurturing
osteoclast- bone remodeling

2

what are the bone cells embedded in?

an amorphous matrix consisting of various minerals, protein fibers, and ground substance

3

what is the primary constituent of the ground substance?

glycosaminoglycans

4

what types of glycosaminoglycans predominate in bone?

chondroitin sulfate
keratin sulfate
hyaluronic acid

5

what is the principle type of protein fiber in bone?

collagen type I

6

what is the most frequently described deposit in bone?

hydroxyapatite

7

bone is also the repository for what additional ions?

lead
radium
strontium
sodium
magnesium
flouride

8

what is Wolff's law as it pertains to bone?

living tissue will respond to stressors; bone is formed or absorbed in response to stress

9

what are the three responses of bone that allow it to be described as living?

it has the ability to heal
to remodel under stressors
to age

10

what is bone the embryological derivative of?

Mesenchyme or cartilage

11

what is the name given to the pattern of ossification in mesenchyme?

intramembranous ossification

12

what is the timing for the appearance of intramembranous ossification?

from the 2nd to 3rd month in utero

13

what is the name given to the pattern of ossification in cartilage?

endochondral ossification

14

what is the timing for the appearance of ossification in cartilage?

from the 2nd month to 5th month in utero

15

what part of the skull is derived from endochondral ossification?

chondrocranium

16

which skull bones are ossified by both enochondral and intramembranous ossification?

mandible
sphenoid
temporal
occipital

17

which bone of the appendicular skeleton is formed by both enodochondral and intramembranous ossification?

clavicle

18

what is the name given to the fibrocellular lining of bone?

endosteum

19

what is the name given to the outer fibrocellular covering of bone?

periosteum

20

what is the name given to the bone below an articulating surface?

subchondral bone

21

what are the names given to the centers of ossification based on time of appearance?

primary centers- appears before birth
secondary centers- appears after birth

22

what are the four basic tissues of the human body?

epithelial
muscular
neural
connective

23

What are the primary sources of variation observed in bone?

Sexual dimorphism gender variation
ontogenic variation growth or age variation
geographic or population-based variation ethnic variation
Idiosyncratic variation individual variation

24

What are the six more commonly used classifications of normal bone?

Long bones
short bones
flat bones
irregular bones
Paranasal sinus pneumatic bone
sesamoid bones

25

What are the classifications given to abnormal bone stressed in spinal II?

Heterotopic and accessory bone

26

What is the name given to bone formed in a non-bone location?

Heterotopic bone

27

What is the name given to bone formed from existing bone?

Accessory bone

28

What are the names given to the parts of a long bone?

The diaphysis shaft and typically two epiphyses extremities

29

What is the primary characteristic of short bones?

They are essentially cuboidal

30

What are examples of short bones?

Most of the bones of the carpus and Tarsus

31

What are examples of flat bones?

The parietal bone and sternum

32

What are examples of pneumatic bone?

Frontal
ethmoid
maxilla
Sphenoid
Temporal

33

What bones contain paranasal sinuses?

Frontal
ethmoid
maxilla
Sphenoid

34

What is the characteristic of sesamoid bone?

The bone develops within a tendon

35

What are consistent examples of sesamoid bones?

Patella and pisiform

36

What are examples of heterotopic bones?

Calcific deposits in the Pineal gland, heart, and ligaments

37

What are examples of accessory bones?

Para articular processes and bony spurs of vertebrae

38

What are the four basic surface feature categories?

Elevations
depressions
tunnels or passageways
facets

39

What are types of osseous elevations?

Linear
rounded
sharp

40

What are types of osseous linear elevation?

Line
Ridge
crest

41

What are the types of rounded osseous elevations?

Tubercle
protuberance
trochanter
tuber tuberosity
malleolus

42

What is the definition of an osseous trochanter?

A large blunt projection from the surface of bone with a significant base and height

43

What is the definition of an osseous malleolus?

A hammerhead like elevation on the surface of bone

44

What are the categories of sharp osseous elevations?

Spine and process

45

What is the definition of an osseous elevation called spine?

A thorn like elevation from the surface of bone

46

What is the definition of an osseous process?

A relatively sharp bony projection from the surface of bone with an increased length

47

What are the categories of osseous linear depressions

Notch or incisure
groove
sulcus

48

What is the definition of an osseous groove

A long furrow of variable depth on the surface of the bone

49

What is the definition of an osseous sulcus

A wide groove of variable length and depth on the surface of bone

50

What are the categories of rounded osseous depressions

Fovea and fossa

51

What is the definition of an osseous fovea

A shallow depression a variable circumference on the surface of bone

52

What is the definition of an osseous fossa

A deep depression a variable circumference on the surface of bone

53

What are the names given to openings on the surface of bone

Ostium or orifice
hiatus

54

What is the definition of an osseous hiatus

An irregular opening on the surface of bone

55

What are the names giving to osseous ostia which completely penetrate bone

Foramen or canal

56

What is the definition of an osseous Foramen

And ostium passing completely through a thin region of bone

57

What is the definition of an osseous canal

And ostium passing completely through a thick region of bone

58

What is the name given to an ostium which does not completely penetrate through a region of bone but appears as a blind ended passageway

Meatus

59

What is the definition of an osseous Fissure

An irregular slit like or crack like appearance between the surfaces of adjacent bones

60

What are the categories of osseous facets

Flat facets
rounded facets

61

What are the categories of rounded osseous facets

Articular heads and articular condyles

62

What bones form the axial skeleton

Skull
hyoid
vertebral column
sternum
ribs

63

What is the name given to the adults skull minus the mandible

Cranium

64

What are the names given to the top of the adults skull

Calvaria or Calva

65

What is the total number of bones forming the typical adult skull

28 bones

66

What bones form the Neurocranium of the typical adult skull

Frontal
parietal
temporal
occipital
Sphenoid
ethmoid

67

How many bones formed the typical adult neurocranium

8 bones

68

How many bones form the facial skeleton splanchnocranium or visceral skeleton

14 bones

69

What is the name given to the presacral region of the typical adult vertebral column

Spine

70

What is the total number of bones forming the typical adults spine

24 bones

71

What is the definition of spine as it pertains to the vertebral column

The pre-sacral region of the vertebral column or spinal column

72

How many bones are present in the typical adult sternum

1 bone

73

What regions are present along the typical adult sternum

Manubrium sterni
corpus sterni
xiphoid process

74

How many ribs are present in the typical adult skeleton

12 pair or 24 ribs

75

What is the term used to identify the study of joints

Arthrology

76

What is the term used to identify the study of ligaments

Syndesmology

77

What are the three histological classifications of joints

Fibrous
cartilaginous
synovial fluid

78

What is the condition in which teeth are abnormally align during closure of the mouth

Malocclusion

79

What fibrous connective tissue classically fills the joint space of syndesmosis

Interosseous ligament

80

What are the examples of the typical syndesmosis from the vertebral column

Most of the ligamentous joints of the vertebral column and ligamentous sacral iliac joints

81

What are the characteristics of the amphiarthrosis synchondrosis

They are primary Cartilage joints
temporary in Longevity
composed of hyaline Cartilage
form between ossification centers within a Cartilage template

82

What are examples of temporary Cartilage joints

Metaphysis
Neurocentral joint
Neuroarch joint
chondrocranium

83

What are examples of permanent amphiarthrosis synchondrosis

Costochondral joints or the first sterno chondral joint

84

Which Cartilage joint classification would be considered secondary

Amphiarthrosis symphysis

85

What type of cartilage is characteristic of the amphiarthrosis symphysis

Fibrocartilage or fibrous cartilage

86

What are the characteristics of an amphiarthrosis symphysis

Limited motion
median plane location
support ligaments both anterior and posterior to the joint
more permanent in Longevity then synchondrosis
they occur between bones developing by endochondral ossification

87

What are the classic examples of an Amphiarthrosis symphysis

Intervertebral disc
pubic symphysis
sternal symphysis
symphysis menti

88

Which example of an Amphiarthrosis Symphysis is temporary

symphysis menti

89

What are the four consistent features of synovial diarthrosis joints

Articular or fibrous capsule
synovial membrane
articular Cartilage
synovial fluid

90

Thickening of the fibrous capsule connective tissue will form the

Capsular ligament

91

What generic accessory ligaments may accompany and support the capsular ligament

Intracapsular and extracapsular ligaments

92

What are the characteristics of the type one articular receptors

Located in the superficial layer of the fibrous capsule
resemble Ruffini endings
most numerous in cervical zygapophysis
they monitor the joint at rest

93

What are the characteristics of type two articular receptors

Located in deeper strata of the fibrous capsule
resemble Pacinian corpuscles
most numerous in the cervical spine
monitor the joint during normal range of motion

94

What are the characteristics of type III articular receptors

Present in collateral and intrinsic ligaments
resemble golgi tendon organs
not initially observed along the vertebral column
monitor extreme joint motion

95

what is the function of type IV articular receptors?

nociceptive, they monitor pain

96

Type IVa articular receptors would be present in what locations?

fibroud capsule, articular fat pads, or adventitia of blood vessels

97

Type IVb articular receptors would be present in what locations?

accessory ligaments in general, dense in the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spine

98

Type IV articular receptors would be absent in what parts of the synovial diarthrosis joint?

synovial membrane, articular cartilage and synovial menisci or intra-articular discs

99

what are the three modifications of articular synovial membrane?

synovial villi
articular fat pads or haversian glands
synovial menisci and intra-articular glands

100

what is the generic function of modifications of articular synovial membranes?

aid in spreading synovial fluid

101

where are the articular fat pads located?

in the fibrous layer of synovial membrane; they are absent from articular cartilage, synovial menisci, intra- articular disc

102

articular fat pads are most numerous in what location along the vertebral column?

lumbar zygapophyses

103

intra-articular discs are a feature of what joints examples?

temporomandibular
sternoclavicular
acromioclavicular
radio-ulnar

104

synovial menisci are a feature of what joint examples?

femur-tibia articulation
cerivcal zygopophyses
lumbar zygopophyses

105

what are the layers of the synovial membrane?

outer fibrous layer and an inner (lumenal) cellular layer AKA synovial lamina intima

106

what are the specific functions of type A synovial cells?

are phagocytic

107

what is the specific function of type B synovial cells?

secrete proteinaceous substances and hyalouronic acid

108

what is the source of nutrition for articular cartilage?

blood vessels in the synovial membrane, sinuses of the bone marrow cavity and from synovial fluid itself

109

which collagen fiber type predominates in articular cartilage?

type II

110

what are proteoglycans composed of?

a core protein and glycosaminoglycans

111

what is the primary function of bound glycosaminoglycans in articular cartilage?

form a network for water retention

112

cartilage is able to change shape due to a compression, a characteristic known as

deformation

113

what is implied when cartilage is said to have elastic properties?

cartilage can deform and returns to original volume rapidly, a time independent property

114

what is implied when cartilage is said to have viscoelastic properties?

cartilage can deform but returns to original volume slowly, a time dependent property

115

which theory of joint lubrication implies a loss of fluid from the cartilage into the joint space during compression results in increased viscosity of the synovial fluid?

weeping theory

116

which theory of joint lubrication implies water loss from the synovial fluid increases viscosity of the remaining synovial fluid?

boosted theory

117

which theory of joint lubrication implies an adsorption of lubricant onto cartilage surfaces is responsible for the low friction observed during movement

boundary theory

118

what are the properties of synovial fluid

it is yellow-white,viscous, slightly alkaline, and tastes salty

119

which substance in synovial fluid was first thought to be responsible for its viscosity and lubricating behavior

hyaluronate

120

what substance of synovial fluid has been proposed to be responsible for its viscosity and lubricating behavior

lubricin

121

what is simple synovial joint (diarthrosis)

only one pair of articulating surfaces are observed

122

what is a complex synovial joint (diarthrosis)

within the simple joint or the compound joint, the articulating surfaces are separated by an articular disc (intra articular disc) or meniscus

123

what are the classifications of synovial joints (diarthroses) based on type of movement?

nonaxial
uniaxial
biaxial
multiaxial
(ALL SYNOVIAL JOINTS)

124

what morphological classification of synovial joints is classified as nonaxial

plane (diarthrosis arthrodial)

125

what morphological classifications of synovial joints would be classified as uniaxial

hinge(diarthrosis ginglymus)
pivot (diarthrosis trochoid)

126

what morphological classification of synovial joints would be classified as biaxial

(diarthrosis) bicondylar
(diarthrosis) condylar
(diarthrosis) ellipsoidal
saddle (diarthrosis sellar)

127

what morphological classification of synovial joints would be classified as multiaxial

ball and socket
(diarthrosis enarthrosis)
(diarthrosis spheroidal)
(diarthrosis cotyloid)

are all classifications given to the same joint

128

what are examples of synovial pivot (diarthrosis trochoid) joints

median atlanto-axial joint
proximal radio-ulnar joint

129

what are examples of diarthosis condylar or diarthrosis bicondylar joint

temporomandibular joint
femur-tibia joint of the knee

130

what are examples of diarthosis ellipsoidal joints

radiocarpal joint of the wrist
metacarpo-phalangeal joints of the hand
metatarsal-phalangeal joints of the foot
atlanto-occipital joint of the vertebral column

131

what are examples of synovial saddle (diarthosis sellar) joints

carpometacarpal joints of the thumb
talocrural joint of the ankle
calcaneocuboid joint of the foot

132

what are examples of diarthosis cotyloid joints

femur-acetabulum of innominate articulation at the hip
humerus- glenoid cavity of the scapula articulation at the shoulder

133

what is the number of vertebrae in a typical adolescent

33 segments

134

what is the number of vertebrae in a typical adult

26 segments

135

what constitutes the spine

24 presacral segments, cervical, thoracic, lumbar

136

how many segments unite to form the typical sacrum

5 segments

137

How many segments unite to form the typical coccyx

4 segments

138

Which mammals do not have seven cervical vertebrae

The two toed sloth
Manitee
ant bear
three toed sloth

139

Which mammals have more than seven cervical vertebrae

Ant bear
three toed sloth

140

Which mammals have less than seven cervical vertebrae

Manitee
Two toed sloth

141

What does the term cervical refer to

The region of the neck

142

What does the term thoracic refer to

Breast plate or chest
it referred to the armor bearing region of the torso

143

What other term is often used to identify the vertebral segments of the chest

Dorsal segments
the dorsal's

144

What is the typical number of segments in the dorsal or thoracic region

12 segments

145

What does the term lumbar refer to

The loin
the region between the rib and the hip

146

What is the typical number of segments in the lumbar region

Five segments

147

What does the term sacrum refer to

The holy bone or holy region

148

What does the term coccyx refer to

A cuckoo birds bill or cuckoo birds beak

149

What is the length of a typical male spinal column

About 70 cm or 28 inches

150

What is the length of a typical female spinal column

About 60 cm or 25 inches

151

What is the length difference between a typical male and typical female spinal column

About 3 inches

152

What is the length of the male cervical region both measurements

About 12 cm or 5 inches

153

What is the length of my male thoracic region both measurements

About 28 cm or 11 inches

154

What is the length of a male lumbar region both measurements

About 18 cm or 7 inches

155

What is the length of the male sacrum both measurements

About 12 cm or 5 inches

156

Based on the numbers for individual regions of the vertebral column what is the length of the male spine both measurements

About 58 cm or 23 inches

157

What levels of the vertebral column specifically accommodate weigh bearing transfer

S1 through S3 at the auricular surface

158

What organs are specifically associated with the horizontal axis of the skull

That Eye and the vestibular apparatus of the inner ear

159

Invagination of ectoderm along the primitive streak gives rise to what embryonic structure

Notochord

160

What is the name given to the mesoderm that will give rise to the vertebral column

Para axial mesoderm

161

what embryonic structure gives rise to somites

paraxial mesoderm

162

name the areas of cellular differentiation formed within the somite

sclerotome
myotome
dermatome

163

what are the names of the successive vertebral columns formed during developmental

membranous
cartilaginous
skeletal or osseous

164

migration of a somite pair to surround the notochord forms what developmental feature

the perichordal blastema

165

the perichondral blastema gives rise to what processes

neural processes and costal processes

166

what is the name of the artery located between adjacent perichondral blastemae

intersegmental artery

167

what forms between the sclerotomites of a perichondral blastema

the intrasclerotome fissure (fissure of von ebner)

168

the intrasclerotome fissure (fissure of von ebner) gives rise to what developmental feature

the perichondral

169

the union of a dense caudal sclerotomite and a loose cranial sclertomite from adjacent perichondral blastemae gives rise to what feature

the vertebral blastema

170

what vessel will be identified adjacent to the vertebral blastema

the segmental artery

171

when will cartilage first form in the membranous vertebral blastema

beginning in the 6th embryonic week

172

what is the name given to the replacement of mesoderm by cartilage

chondrification

173

what are the names given to the centers of chondrification within the vertebral blastema

centrum center
neural arch center
transverse process center

174

how many centers of chondrification typically appear in the vertebral blastema

six...2 for the centrum
2 for the neural arches
2 for each transverse process

175

what is the earliest time that centers of ossification appear in the cartilaginous vertebra

during the 7th embryonic week

176

what is the name given to centers of ossification based on time of appearance

primary centers appear in utero
secondary centers appear after birth

177

what is the ratio of primary to secondary centers of ossification for a typical vertebra

3 primary centers
5 secondary centers

178

what are the names of the primary centers of ossification for a typical vertebra

centrum centers and neural arch centers

179

what are the names locations of the five secondary centers of ossification for a typical

tip of the transverse process, tip of the spinous process, epiphyseal plate centers

180

what is the range of appearance for secondary centers of ossification of a typical vertebra

during puberty, typical ages 11-16 year olds

181

what is the general shape of the vertebral body at each region of the spine

cervical- rectangular
thoracic- triangular
lumbar- reniform

182

what is the given to the compact bone at the superior and inferior surfaces of the vertebral body

superior epiphyseal plate
inferior epiphyseal plate

183

what large opening is usually observed at the back of the vertebral body

the basivertebral venous foramen

184

what is the name given to the intermediate part of the vertebral arch where the transverse process and articular processes attach

the lamina- pedicle junction

185

what is the generic orientation of the pericle at each region of the spine

cervical- posterolateral
thoracic- posterior, slight lateral
lumbar- posterior

186

All lamina are oriented and what direction

Posterior and median

187

What ligament will attach to the lamina

The ligamentum flavum

188

What is the name given to abnormal bone at the attachment site of ligamentum flavum

Para articular process

189

What classification of bone will Para articular processes represent

Accessory bone

190

What is the name given to the overlap of laminae seen on x-ray

Shingling

191

What is the name given to the lamina pedicle Junction at each region of the spine

Cervical articular pillar
thoracic and lumbar pars inter-articularis

192

What is the name given to the junction of the vertebral arch spinous process on lateral x-ray

The spinolaminar junction

193

What names may be given to each apophysis of the spine

The transverse apophysis or transverse process
articular apophysis or articular process

194

What is the generic orientation of the transverse process or transverse apophysis at each region of the spine

Cervical anterolateral
thoracic posterolateral
lumbar lateral

195

What is the name given to the rounded elevation at the end of the transverse apophysis or transverse process

The transverse tubercle

196

What will cause the transverse process/transverse apophysis to alter it's initial direction in the cervical region

Cervical spinal nerves are pulled forward to form the cervical and brachial nerve plexuses thus remodeling the transverse process to accommodate their new position

197

What will cause the transverse process transverse apophysis to alter its initial direction in the thoracic region

The growth of the lungs remodel the shape of the ribs which in turn push the transverse processes backward

198

What is the name given to the joint form between articular facets of the vertebral couple

The zygapophysis

199

What is the name given to the part of the vertebra forming the pre-zygapophysis

The superior articular process or superior articular apophysis

200

What is the name given to the part of the vertebra forming the post zygapophysis

The inferior articular process or inferior articular apophysis

201

What will form the posterior boundary of a typical intervertebral foramen

The inferior articular process post zygapophysis
the superior articular process pre-zygapophysis
the capsular ligament
the ligamentum flavum

202

What will form the superior boundary of a typical intervertebral foramen

The inferior vertebral notch or inferior vertebral incisure

203

What will form the inferior boundary of a typical intervertebral foramen

The superior vertebral notch or superior vertebral incisure

204

What will form the anterior boundary of a typical intervertebral foramen

The vertebral body of the segment above
the vertebral body of the segment below
the intravertebral disc
the posterior longitudinal ligament

205

What is the method of calculating the angle of the spinous process spinous apophysis

Calculate the angle formed between the undersurface of the spinous process/spinous apophysis and the horizontal plane

206

What is the name given to the normal overlap of spinous processes or spinous apophysis as seen on x-ray

Imbrication

207

What is the orientation of the spinous process spinous apophysis at each region of the spine

Cervical slight angle inferior
thoracic noticeable angle inferiorly
lumbar no inferior angle

208

What is the typical shape outline of the vertebral foramen at each region of the spinal column vertebral column

Cervical triangular
thoracic oval
lumbar triangular
sacrum triangular

209

At what vertebral level will the spinal cord typically terminate

L1

210

It would vertebral level will the dural sack typically terminate

S2

211

Identify all segmental arteries

Vertebral
ascending cervical
deep cervical
superior highest intercostal
posterior intercostal
subcostal
lumbar
iliolumbar
lateral sacral
median middle sacral

212

What are the segmental arteries of the cervical spine

Vertebral artery
ascending cervical artery
deep cervical artery

213

What are the segmental arteries of the thoracic spine

Deep cervical artery
superior highest intercostal artery
posterior intercostal artery
subcostal artery

214

What are the segmental arteries of the lumbar spine

Lumbar arteries
iliolumbar artery
lateral sacral artery
median middle sacral artery

215

What are the saying mental arteries of the fifth lumbar vertebrae

Iliolumbar artery
lateral sacral artery
median middle sacral artery

216

What are the segmental arteries of the sacrum

Iliolumbar Artery
Lateral sacral artery
median sacral artery

217

What segmental levels are supplied by the vertebral artery

C-1 through C6

218

What segmental levels are supplied by the ascending cervical artery

C-1 through C6

219

What segmental levels are supplied by the deep cervical artery

C7 through T1

220

What segmental levels are supplied by the superior highest intercostal artery

T1 and T2

221

What Segmental levels are supplied by the posterior intercostal artery

T3 through T11

222

What segmental levels are supplied by the subcostal artery

T 12

223

What segmental levels are supplied by the lumbar arteries

L1 through L4

224

What are the segmental levels supplied by the
median sacral artery
iliolumbar artery
lateral sacral artery

L5
S1 through S5
coccyx

225

What's vertebra has the greatest number of segmental arteries associated with it

L5

226

What are the segmental arteries for L5

Iliolumbar artery
median middle sacral artery
lateral sacral artery

227

What branch of the segmental artery supplies the vertebra and paravertebral region

Dorsospinal artery

228

Which branch of the dorsospinal artery will penetrate the meninges to enter subarachnoid space

Spinal artery

229

Which branches of the spinal artery supply the contents of the epidural space

Osseous arteries
anterior spinal canal artery
posterior spinal canal artery

230

What arteries are observed in the epidural space near the posterior longitudinal ligament

Anterior spinal canal artery and plexus

231

What arteries are observed an epidural space near the ligamentum flavum

Posterior spinal canal artery and plexus

232

Which branches of the spinal artery supply the contents of the subarachnoid space

Anterior radicular artery
posterior ridiculous artery
anterior medullary feeder artery
posterior medullary fear artery

233

Which vessel will supply the ventral anterior nerve rootlet and nerve root

Anterior radicular artery

234

Which vessel will supply the dorsal posterior nerve rootlets, nerve root, and nerve root ganglion

posterior radicular artery

235

What location and number of medullary feeder arteries present in the adult

9 anterior and 12 posterior medullary feeder arteries

236

What is the name given to the artery that lies in front of the spinal cord along its length

Anterior spinal artery

237

The anterior spinal artery is a branch of which artery

The vertebral artery

238

Is the anterior spinal artery a single continuous artery along the spinal cord

No

239

As the anterior spinal artery continues along the spinal cord what arteries unite along its length to give the appearance of a single continuous vessel

Anterior medullary feeder arteries

240

The posterior spinal cord is a branch of which artery

The posterior inferior cerebellar artery

241

What is the position of the posterior spinal artery relative to the spinal cord

It lies in the posterior lateral sulcus along the spinal cord

242

Is the posterior spinal artery a single continuous artery along the spinal cord

No

243

As the posterior spinal artery continues along the spinal cord which arteries unite along its length to give the appearance of a single continuous vessel

Posterior medullary feeder arteries

244

What forms arterial vasa Corona above C3

A median anterior spinal artery
right and left posterior spinal artery's
four communicating arteries

245

What is the generic name given to arteries that penetrate the spinal cord

Intra-medullary arteries

246

What are the intramedullary branches of the arterial vasa Corona

Pial perforating arteries
central ventral sulcal perforating arteries

247

What arterial vasa Corona up branches supply gray matter and most of the spinal cord

Ventral central sulcal perforating arteries

248

What is the primary artery supplementing the arterial vasa Corona

Anterior medullary feeder
posterior medullary feeder

249

What vessels drain the spinal cord

Pial veins

250

What will pial veins drain into

Venus vasa Corona

251

What vessels form the Venous vasa Corona

Right and left anterior longitudinal veins
right and left posterior longitudinal veins
four communicating veins

252

Which vessels will drain the Venous vasa Corona

Anterior medullary veins
posterior medullary veins

253

What vessel will drain the dorsal posterior nerve root ganglion

Posterior radicular veins

254

What veins are observed in the epidural space near the posterior longitudinal ligament

Anterior Internal vertebral venous plexus Basivertebral vain

255

What veins are observed an epidural space near the ligamentum Flavum

Posterior internal vertebral venous plexus

256

What Venous vessels are identified in the intervertebral foramen

Intervertebral veins

257

Identify the meninges of the spinal cord (spinal Medulla or medulla spinalis)

Dura matter
arachnoid matter
Pia matter

258

What is the name given to the fluid within the epidural space

Interstitial fluid

259

Which of the contents of the epidural space are more likely located near or around the posterior longitudinal ligament

Anterior spinal canal artery and plexus
anterior internal vertebral venous plexus
Basivertebral vein
re-current meningeal sinu-vertebral sinus vertebral nerve
Hoffman anterior Dural meningeal vertebral ligaments

260

Which of the contents of the epidural space will be found near the lamina

Posterior spinal canal artery and plexus
posterior Internal vertebral venous plexus
ligamentum Flavum

261

What is the name given to the fluid within the subarachnoid space

Cerebrospinal fluid

262

What is the name given to the lateral extension of pia matter along the spinal cord

Dentate Denticulate ligament

263

What is the unique feature of veins along the spinal cord

They lack the bicuspid valve of typical veins

264

In the horizontal view what direction of the spinal cord tends to be the largest

Transverse

265

What are the spinal cord enlargement locations in the name given to each

C3 through T1 the cervical enlargement
T9 through T 12 the lumbar lumbosacral enlargement

266

Where is the greatest transverse diameter of the spinal cord

C6

267

In which plane or direction will the diameter of the spinal decrease from C-2 through T1

Mid sagittal or anterior posterior plane

268

What spinal nerves originate from the lumbar lumbosacral enlargement

L1 through S3 spinal nerves

269

What is a generic cord level of origin vertebral level combination for the Lumbar lumbosacral enlargement

L1 L2 cord levels in T9 vertebra
L3 L4 cord levels in T10 vertebra
L5 S1 cord levels in T11 vertebra
S2 S3 cord levels in T 12 vertebra

270

What is the caudal end of the spinal cord called

Conus medullaris

271

What spinal nerves originate from the conus medullaris

Typically
S4
S5
Co1

272

In which vertebral foramen will the conus medullaris typically be observed

L1

273

What is the name given to the nerve roots below L1

Cauda equina

274

What is the continuation of Pia matter below the conus medullaris called

Filum terminale internum

275

What is the location and name given to the area where all meninges first converge at the caudal part of the vertebral column

Typically S2, the dural cul de sac

276

Neural tissue has been identified in which part of the filum terminale

Proximal part of the filum terminale internum

277

What is the fate of the neural tissue identified along the filum terminale internum

It joins peripheral nerve roots of spinal nerves as high as L3 and as low as S4

278

What does the neural tissue associated with the filum terminale externum appear to innervate

Lower limbs and the Extertal anal sphincter

279

The last arterial vasa Corona creates which feature on angiogram

Cruciate anastomosis

280

What is the name given to the condensation of meninges below S2

Filum Terminale externum

281

What is the name given to the Caudal attachment of the meninges

Coccygeal medullary vestige

282

What is the name given to the condition in which the conus medullaris is located below L1 in the filum terminale is thickened

Tethered cord syndrome

283

What are the four basic tissues of the human body

Epithelial
Neural
Muscle
Connective

284

What is the relationship between scoliosis and tethered cord syndrome

It is suggested that the column will change normal curvatures to mitigate damage to the spinal cord

285

What is the relationship between spinal nerve number rib number and vertebral number in a thoracic Intravertebral foramen

The spinal nerve number relates to the upper segment number in the vertebral couple the rib number relates to the lower segment number in the vertebral couple
in example T3 nerve exits the vertebral Intervertebral foramen formed by T3 T4 and rib four joints with this vertebral couple

286

Which mammals have more than seven cervical vertebra

Ant bear
three toed sloth

287

Which mammals have less than seven cervical vertebrae

Two toed sloth
Manatee

288

Which vertebra are typical cervical's

C3
C4
C5
C6

289

What vertebra are a typical cervical's

C1
C2
C7

290

What is the shape of the typical cervical vertebra body from the cranial view

Rectangular

291

What is the appearance of the typical cervical vertebral body from the lateral view

Posterior height is greater than anterior height by a few millimeters

292

What would be the direction of the cervical curve based on an osseous feature

Posterior or kyphotic

293

What accounts for the direction of the typical cervical curve

The inter-vertebral disc height

294

What is the direction of the typical cervical curve

Anterior or lordotic

295

At which vertebral couple with the cervical curve again increase intervertebral disc height

C5 C6

296

What is the effect of aging on the cervical vertebral body

It diminishes the overall height of the vertebral body

297

What are the modifications of the superior epiphyseal rim of a typical cervical

Anterior groove
posterior groove
right and left uncinate processes

298

What are the names of the lateral modification of the superior epiphyseal rim

Uncinate process
unciform process
Uncovertebral process
uncus
lateral lip

299

At what developmental age well the uncinate process first be observed

3rd to 4th fetal month

300

What are the modifications of the inferior epiphyseal rim of a typical cervical

Anterior lip
posterior lip
right and left lateral grooves

301

What is the joint classification for the anterior lip anterior groove articulation

Fibrous Amphiarthrosis syndesmosis

302

What is the joint classification for the uncinate process lateral groove articulation

Modified synovial saddle diarthrosis sellar

303

What is the joint classification for the spongy bone intravertebral disc articulation

Cartilaginous amphiarthrosis symphysis

304

How many joint surfaces are present an upper surface of a typical cervical vertebral body

5

305

How many joint surfaces are present on the vertebral body of a typical cervical

10

306

What is the name given to the uncinate process lateral groove articulation

Joint of luschka or uncovertebral joint

307

What is the functional significance of the joint of Luschka

It appears to stabilize the intervertebral disc while accommodating flexion extension and requiring coupled motion axial rotation with lateral bending in the cervical spine

308

What muscle attaches to the typical cervical vertebral body

The longus colli muscle

309

What is the orientation and angulation of the pedicle of a typical cervical

Posterolateral 45°

310

At what location on the vertebral body of a typical cervical will the pedicle attach

To the side and in the center of the vertebral body

311

What ligament attaches to the lamina of a typical cervical

Fibrous amphiarthrosis syndesmosis

312

Ossification of the ligamentum flavum at the attachment site on the lamina will result in what feature

Para articular processes

313

Ossification on the ligamentum Flavum at the attachment site on the lamina will be associated with which classification of bone

Accessory bone

314

What is the outline of the vertebral foramen of the typical cervical vertebra

Heart shaped or triangular

315

Which is the greatest diameter of the vertebral foramen of typical cervical's

Transverse

316

What soft tissue diameter mimics the outline of the typical cervical vertebral foramen

The transverse diameter of the cervical enlargement of the spinal cord

317

The greatest transverse diameter of the typical cervical vertebra occurs at

C6

318

The greatest frequency of osteophytes associated with the vertebral body occurs at which typical cervical vertebral couple

C5 C6

319

List in order the Osseous parts of the typical cervical vertebra transverse process beginning at the vertebral body

Costal element
anterior tubercle
costotransverse bar
posterior tubercle
true transverse process

320

What muscles will attach to the anterior tubercle of a typical cervical vertebra

Anterior scalene
longus capitis
longus colli
anterior intertransversarii

321

What muscles may attached to the posterior tubercle of a typical cervical vertebra

Splenius cervisis
iliocostalis cervisis
longissimus cervisis
levator scapula
middle scalene
posterior scalene
rotators
posterior intertransversarii

322

What muscles will attach to the costotransverse bar

Middle scalene and posterior intertransversarii

323

What produces the primary tension on the transverse process that will cause remodeling in the anterolateral and inferior directions

Cervical spinal nerves as they directed anterolateral and inferiorly to form the cervical and brachial plexuses

324

What is the name given to the superior margin of the costotransverse bar

Sulcus for the ventral primary ramus of a cervical spinal nerve

325

What is the orientation and angulation of a typical cervical transverse process

60° anterolateral from the mid sagittal plane
15° inferiorly from the horizontal plane

326

What is the name given to the modification of the anterior tubercle of the C6 transverse process

The carotid tubercle

327

What will cause remodeling on the anterior tubercle at C6

The common carotid artery

328

What will occupy the typical cervical vertebra transverse foramen

The vertebral artery
vertebral venous plexus
postganglionic sympathetic motor nerve fibers

329

What is the name of the surface feature observed between ends of the articular pillar

The groove sulcus for the dorsal Ramus of a cervical spinal nerve

330

What is the classic angulation of a typical cervical articular facet

40 to 45° from the coronal plane

331

Recent work suggest that angulation for typical cervical articular facets

55 to 60°

332

What is the orientation of the typical cervical superior articular facet

Bum backward upward medial

333

What is the orientation of the typical cervical inferior articular facet

Fold forward lateral downward

334

What muscles will attached to the cervical articular processes

Longissimus capitis
Longissimus cervisis
Semispinalis capitis
Semispinalis cervisis
Multifidus
Rotators

335

What muscles blend with the capsular ligament of the cervical zygapophysis

Semispinalis capitis
Multifidus
Rotator longus

336

What is the joint classification for the typical cervical zygapophysis

Synovial plane diarthrosis arthrodia joint

337

What modifications of the synovial joint are observed in the cervical spine

Meniscoidal folds

Decks in Spinal Anatomy Summer 2015 Class (67):