Flashcards in Exam 1 Review Deck (55):
What are the 6 groups of microorganisms?
Bacteria, viruses, fungi, Protozoa, algae, prions
Which of the six are prokaryotic? Eukaryotic, An a cellular
Viruses- infectious material
An organism that lives in dead or decaying organic matter
Disease causing microorganism;
A microbe with potential to cause disease but doesn’t do it under ordinary circumstances; may cause disease in susceptible host with lowered resistance
Microorganisms that live on an in the healthy body
It’s an opportunist pathogen. It causes pneumonia , ear infections, sinus infections, meningitis, sepsis
What percentage of bacteria in the world is pathogenic?
What is microbial infection?
Results when a pathogen colonizes a persons body to cause a disease ( infectious disease)
A pathogen produces a toxin when outside the body that is released when it dies when ingested
What unit of measurement is used for measuring microbes?
How big are viruses?
How big are bacteria?
Average of 1um
Eukaryotic cell size
What are the 2 Acellular groups?
Prions- infectious proteins
Viruses- have dna or rna
What are the two groups of cellular microbes?
No membrane bound organelles
What are your three bacteria names?
Bacillus anthracis- anthrax
Clostridium tetani- tetanus
Vibrio cholerae- cholera
Don’t capitalize the species
A sticky thick layer of glycoclayx
Pills or fimbrea
Tube like structures for fimbreas An hair like for pilli
Sex pilli transfer DNA to other bacteria
Know diagram of prokaryotic cell
How do erythromycin and tetracycline kill bacteria?
From binding to smaller ribosomes to stop protein production
What happens when the cell wall is weakened
Protects of osmosis variation
Peptidoglycan structure An function.
Forms the cell wall determines gram + an gram -
Made out of polysaccharide chains An peptides
How does beta-lactam antibiotics work
It disrupts the cell wall structure when the cell wall grows the cell gets weakened An is susceptible to osmosis variation.
What osmotic variation is and which cell structures protect it from bacteria from it?
Osmotic variation is when water either causes the cell to burst due to to much water inside. Or shrivel due to too little water
How to bacteria reproduce?
What is an obligate intracellular parasite?
How do viruses reproduce?
Viruses use the Horst cells to replicate
Why are viruses not considered cell?
They have DNA OR RNA
They do not replicate on their own
They don’t metabolize food
They don’t divide
Basic structures of a virus particle.
Envelope/ proteins in envelope membrane. Capsid- green dots
Nucleic acid core
A complete virus particle
What are the 3 groups of viruses
Animal viruses ( virons)
What are the characteristics used to classify animal viruses?
Type of nucleic acid
The number of strands
Shape An size of capsid
Presence of envelope
What are the steps to animal virus replication?
Attachment - virus binds to a specific receptor.
Penetration- like endocytosis
Uncoating- removing protein coat
Biosynthesis- coping, transmitting, An translating viral proteins and nucleic acid
Assembly- builds virus partials ( 10,000 to 1 mil)
Release- host cell explodes releasing viruses unenveloped
Budding- viruses push through host cell membrane giving them an envelope.
What is acute viral infection
Virus infects host, host becomes sick, host cell either dies or recovers fully with long term immunity to the specific strain ex. Mumps
What is latent infection?
When host gets sick you recover but viruses doesn’t leave body. The virus retreats into the nerve endings. It can re-emerge causing host to get sick again. Ex chicken pox
Ex HSV1 An HSV2
What is a prion?
What is spongiform encephalopathy?
Mad cow disease or holes in the head disease
What is the relationship between mad cow disease An CJD
CDJ is in humans, mad cow is in cows
What characteristics are to identify bacteria?
Cell morphology- cell shape
Atmospheric gas requirements
What are the 3 shapes of bacterial cells?
An staph- chain
What is diplodocus
What are pleomorphic cells
They change shape
Define obligate aerobe
Theses cells must have o2
Require a little air 5%
Cannot have o2
Don’t use o2 but can handle it. Grow better without it
They grow better with o2 but can live without it
They grow best with increase CO2 5-10%
What molecules are required for bacterial growth
What are fastidious organisms
Organisms that require growth factors. They need specific molecules for growth
He must live in another cell to grow ex. Lymes disease (leaky membrane )
Uses it host cells atp
No cell wall, pleomorphic