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Flashcards in Exam 1 Review Deck (55):
1

What are the 6 groups of microorganisms?

Bacteria, viruses, fungi, Protozoa, algae, prions

2

Which of the six are prokaryotic? Eukaryotic, An a cellular

Bacteria-prokaryotic
Viruses- infectious material
Fungi- eukaryotic
Algae- eukaryotic
Prions-acellular microbes
Protozoa- prokaryotic

3

Saprophyte

An organism that lives in dead or decaying organic matter

4

Pathogen

Disease causing microorganism;

5

Opportunistic pathogen

A microbe with potential to cause disease but doesn’t do it under ordinary circumstances; may cause disease in susceptible host with lowered resistance

6

Indigenous microflora

Microorganisms that live on an in the healthy body

7

Streptococcus pneumoniae

It’s an opportunist pathogen. It causes pneumonia , ear infections, sinus infections, meningitis, sepsis

8

What percentage of bacteria in the world is pathogenic?

1%

9

What is microbial infection?

Results when a pathogen colonizes a persons body to cause a disease ( infectious disease)

10

Microbial intoxication

A pathogen produces a toxin when outside the body that is released when it dies when ingested

11

What unit of measurement is used for measuring microbes?

(Um) micrometer

12

How big are viruses?

.01um-.03um

13

How big are bacteria?

Average of 1um

14

Eukaryotic cell size

200(um)

15

What are the 2 Acellular groups?

Prions- infectious proteins
Viruses- have dna or rna
Protein coat
Envelope
Nucleic acid

16

What are the two groups of cellular microbes?

Prokaryotic
No membrane bound organelles
Small
Some pathogenic
Eukaryotic- complex
Nucleus
Large
Some pathogenic

17

What are your three bacteria names?

Bacillus anthracis- anthrax
Clostridium tetani- tetanus
Vibrio cholerae- cholera
Don’t capitalize the species

18

Capsule

A sticky thick layer of glycoclayx

19

Pills or fimbrea

Tube like structures for fimbreas An hair like for pilli
Sex pilli transfer DNA to other bacteria

20

Know diagram of prokaryotic cell

Inclusion
Capsule
Cell wall
Cell membrane
Pili
Cytoplasm
Ribosomes
Chromosomes
Plasmid
Flagella

21

How do erythromycin and tetracycline kill bacteria?

From binding to smaller ribosomes to stop protein production

22

What happens when the cell wall is weakened

Protects of osmosis variation

23

Peptidoglycan structure An function.

Forms the cell wall determines gram + an gram -
Made out of polysaccharide chains An peptides

24

How does beta-lactam antibiotics work

It disrupts the cell wall structure when the cell wall grows the cell gets weakened An is susceptible to osmosis variation.

25

What osmotic variation is and which cell structures protect it from bacteria from it?

Osmotic variation is when water either causes the cell to burst due to to much water inside. Or shrivel due to too little water

26

How to bacteria reproduce?

Binary fission

27

What is an obligate intracellular parasite?

Viruses

28

How do viruses reproduce?

Viruses use the Horst cells to replicate

29

Why are viruses not considered cell?

They have DNA OR RNA
They do not replicate on their own
No ribosomes
They don’t metabolize food
They don’t divide

30

Basic structures of a virus particle.

Envelope/ proteins in envelope membrane. Capsid- green dots
Nucleic acid core

31

Virion

A complete virus particle

32

What are the 3 groups of viruses

Bacteriophages
Viroids
Animal viruses ( virons)

33

What are the characteristics used to classify animal viruses?

Type of nucleic acid
The number of strands
Shape An size of capsid
Presence of envelope
Replication

34

What are the steps to animal virus replication?

Attachment - virus binds to a specific receptor.
Penetration- like endocytosis
Uncoating- removing protein coat
Biosynthesis- coping, transmitting, An translating viral proteins and nucleic acid
Assembly- builds virus partials ( 10,000 to 1 mil)
Release- host cell explodes releasing viruses unenveloped
Budding- viruses push through host cell membrane giving them an envelope.

35

What is acute viral infection

Virus infects host, host becomes sick, host cell either dies or recovers fully with long term immunity to the specific strain ex. Mumps

36

What is latent infection?

When host gets sick you recover but viruses doesn’t leave body. The virus retreats into the nerve endings. It can re-emerge causing host to get sick again. Ex chicken pox
Ex HSV1 An HSV2

37

What is a prion?

Infectious protein

38

What is spongiform encephalopathy?

Mad cow disease or holes in the head disease

39

What is the relationship between mad cow disease An CJD

CDJ is in humans, mad cow is in cows

40

What characteristics are to identify bacteria?

Cell morphology- cell shape
Gram stain
Atmospheric gas requirements
Nutritional requirements
Not pathogenicity
Genetic composition

41

What are the 3 shapes of bacterial cells?

Cocci
Rods
An staph- chain

42

What is diplodocus

Two cocci

43

What are pleomorphic cells

They change shape

44

Define obligate aerobe

Theses cells must have o2

45

Microaerophile

Require a little air 5%

46

Obligate anaerobes

Cannot have o2

47

Areotolerant anerobes

Don’t use o2 but can handle it. Grow better without it

48

Facultative anaerobes

They grow better with o2 but can live without it

49

Capnophile

They grow best with increase CO2 5-10%

50

What molecules are required for bacterial growth

CHNOPS

51

What are fastidious organisms

Organisms that require growth factors. They need specific molecules for growth

52

What’s rickettsia

He must live in another cell to grow ex. Lymes disease (leaky membrane )

53

Chlamydia

Uses it host cells atp

54

Mycoplasma

No cell wall, pleomorphic

55

What is the example for pili/flagella

Neisseria gonorrhoeae, use fimbrea to adhere to hot cells or to transfer DNA