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Flashcards in Exam 1 Review Deck (62):
1

What are the 3 substrates that participate in resonance?

Acetyl CoA
1,3 BPG->3PG
Creatine

2

What two bonds does resonance create stability between?

C—O
C—N

3

What is the reaction that occurs via tautomerization?

Phosphoenolpyruvate —> Pyruvate (enol) —> Pyruvate (Keto)

4

_____. ATP Hydrolysis produces H+, because pH 5 has a higher [H+] than at standard conditions, the reaction will shift to the ______.

Less. Left.

5

What is the name of the compound responsible for 90% of DH reactions?

Niacin

6

Why is alcoholism an issue for glycolysis?

Ethanol outcompetes glycolysis for NADH (Niacin)

7

What is the reducing agent in the NAD+ —> NADH reaction?

NADH

8

What is the reductant in the NAD+ —> NADH reaction?

NADH

9

What is the oxidizing agent in the NAD+ —> NADH reaction?

NAD+

10

What is the oxidant in the NAD+ —> NADH reaction?

NAD+

11

What is the reduced molecule in the NAD+ —> NADH reaction?

NAD+

12

What is the oxidized molecule in the NAD+ —> NADH reaction?

NADH

13

What is the molecule that gains electrons in the NAD+ —> NADH reaction?

NADH

14

What is the molecule that loses electrons in the NAD+ —> NADH reaction?

NAD+

15

What is the term for the molecule that gains electrons in a redox reaction?

Oxidized

16

What is the term for the molecule that loses electrons in a redox reaction?

Reduced

17

What would happen if phosphoglycerate Mutase were deleted?

Phosphoenolpyruvate wouldn’t be made

18

Where is hexokinase 1 located?

Muscle cells

19

What is responsible for regulating Hexokinase 1?

Concentration of G6P

20

Where is Hexokinase 4 (glucokinase) located?

Liver and Pancreatic Beta cells

21

True or False: Glucokinase has product inhibition

False

22

What happens in Pancreatic Beta cells if Glycolysis is inhibited?

Insulin is not produced and you get type 1 diabetes-like symptoms

23

What inhibits PFK-1?

ATP and Citrate

24

What stimulates PFK-1?

AMP and 2,6 Fructose Bisphosphate

25

What is the insulin pathway of signal transduction?

Insulin —> Receptor —> Kinase Cascade —> Phosphoprotein phosphatase —> Activates PFK by de-phosphorylation

26

What is the glucagon pathway of signal transduction?

Glucagon —> Receptor —> Adenyl Cyclades —> cAMP —> Protein Kinase A —> Converts ATP to ADP and phosphorylates PFK-2 to make inactive.

27

What is PFK-2 responsible for?

Converting F6P -> 2,6 FBP

28

What is the role of Lactate Dehydrogenase?

Shuttle electrons between lactate and Pyruvate

29

What is the cofactor in the lactate dehydrogenase reaction?

NADH

30

What is the function of the lactate dehydrogenase reaction?

Recycle NAD+ in anaerobic conditions to generate ATP

31

Which sugar pathway has a 2-phosphate structure before the aldolase split into functional units of glycolysis?

Glucose

32

Which carbons, from F1P, form DHAP in the Fructose pathway?

Carbons 1,2,3

33

How does a high fructose corn syrup diet impact ATP Synthesis?

Increases

34

What is the impact of high fructose corn syrup on fat storage and why?

It increases fat storage because ATP skips the investment phase and the excess moves to fat synthesis and storage.

35

What happens in carbohydrate metabolism if there is a defect in Aldolase B?

F1P won’t be able to split into DHAP and Glyceraldehyde

36

How is PDH and AKGDH affected by a defect in Vitamin B1?

Pyruvate cannot be bound and lipoate cannot be reduced

37

How is PDH and AKGDH affected by a defect in Vitamin B2?

Lipoate cannot be oxidized

38

How is PDH and AKGDH affected by a defect in Vitamin B3?

FAD cannot be oxidized

39

How is PDH and AKGDH affected by a defect in Vitamin B5?

No acetyl release from lysine lipoate

40

How is PDH and AKGDH affected by a defect in Lipoate?

B1 is not reset and there is no carbohydrate release

41

Pyruvate Dehydrogenase is an example of __________ because the intermediates remain within the complex and energy coupling is highly controlled.

Substrate channeling

42

Pyruvate Dehydrogenase and Alpha-Ketoglutarate Dehydrogenase are examples of ______ due to the same complexes of enzymes and cofactors.

Divergent evolution

43

______ is a cofactor of aconitase.

Iron

44

How is Kreb’s Cycle impacted by Anemia and why?

Slows Kreb’s due to a lack of iron in the system

45

_____ is a cofactor of the isocitrate dehydrogenase reaction

NAD/NADP

46

What does Succinate Dehydrogenase use as a cofactor?

Enzyme-bound Riboflavin

47

What is the cofactor for the Malate Dehydrogenase reaction?

Soluble Niacin

48

What 4 molecules stimulate Pyruvate dehydrogenase?

AMP
CoASH
NAD+
Ca2+

49

What 4 molecules inhibit Pyruvate Dehydrogenase?

ATP
NADH
Acetyl CoA
Fatty acids

50

What stimulates Citrate Synthase?

ADP

51

What 4 molecules inhibit Citrate Synthase?

ATP
NADH
Citrate
Succinyl CoA

52

What 2 molecules stimulate Isocitrate Dehydrogenase?

ADP
Ca2+

53

What inhibits Isocitrate Dehydrogenase?

ATP

54

What allosteric regulators are stimulated by Ca2+?

Pyruvate DH
Isocitrate DH
AKG DH

55

What allosteric regulators are stimulated by ADP?

Citrate Synthase
Isocitrate DH

56

What Allosteric regulators are inhibited by ATP?

Pyruvate DH
Citrate Synthase
Isocitrate DH

57

What allosteric regulators are inhibited by NADH?

Pyruvate DH
Citrate Synthase
AKGDH

58

Which allosteric regulator is stimulated by AMP?

Pyruvate DH

59

Which allosteric regulator is stimulated by CoASH?

Pyruvate DH

60

Which allosteric regulator is stimulated by NAD+?

Pyruvate DH

61

Which allosteric regulator is inhibited by Acetyl CoA?

Pyruvate DH

62

Which allosteric regulator is inhibited by fatty acids?

Pyruvate Dehydrogenase