Flashcards in Exam 1 Review Deck (62):
What are the 3 substrates that participate in resonance?
What two bonds does resonance create stability between?
What is the reaction that occurs via tautomerization?
Phosphoenolpyruvate —> Pyruvate (enol) —> Pyruvate (Keto)
_____. ATP Hydrolysis produces H+, because pH 5 has a higher [H+] than at standard conditions, the reaction will shift to the ______.
What is the name of the compound responsible for 90% of DH reactions?
Why is alcoholism an issue for glycolysis?
Ethanol outcompetes glycolysis for NADH (Niacin)
What is the reducing agent in the NAD+ —> NADH reaction?
What is the reductant in the NAD+ —> NADH reaction?
What is the oxidizing agent in the NAD+ —> NADH reaction?
What is the oxidant in the NAD+ —> NADH reaction?
What is the reduced molecule in the NAD+ —> NADH reaction?
What is the oxidized molecule in the NAD+ —> NADH reaction?
What is the molecule that gains electrons in the NAD+ —> NADH reaction?
What is the molecule that loses electrons in the NAD+ —> NADH reaction?
What is the term for the molecule that gains electrons in a redox reaction?
What is the term for the molecule that loses electrons in a redox reaction?
What would happen if phosphoglycerate Mutase were deleted?
Phosphoenolpyruvate wouldn’t be made
Where is hexokinase 1 located?
What is responsible for regulating Hexokinase 1?
Concentration of G6P
Where is Hexokinase 4 (glucokinase) located?
Liver and Pancreatic Beta cells
True or False: Glucokinase has product inhibition
What happens in Pancreatic Beta cells if Glycolysis is inhibited?
Insulin is not produced and you get type 1 diabetes-like symptoms
What inhibits PFK-1?
ATP and Citrate
What stimulates PFK-1?
AMP and 2,6 Fructose Bisphosphate
What is the insulin pathway of signal transduction?
Insulin —> Receptor —> Kinase Cascade —> Phosphoprotein phosphatase —> Activates PFK by de-phosphorylation
What is the glucagon pathway of signal transduction?
Glucagon —> Receptor —> Adenyl Cyclades —> cAMP —> Protein Kinase A —> Converts ATP to ADP and phosphorylates PFK-2 to make inactive.
What is PFK-2 responsible for?
Converting F6P -> 2,6 FBP
What is the role of Lactate Dehydrogenase?
Shuttle electrons between lactate and Pyruvate
What is the cofactor in the lactate dehydrogenase reaction?
What is the function of the lactate dehydrogenase reaction?
Recycle NAD+ in anaerobic conditions to generate ATP
Which sugar pathway has a 2-phosphate structure before the aldolase split into functional units of glycolysis?
Which carbons, from F1P, form DHAP in the Fructose pathway?
How does a high fructose corn syrup diet impact ATP Synthesis?
What is the impact of high fructose corn syrup on fat storage and why?
It increases fat storage because ATP skips the investment phase and the excess moves to fat synthesis and storage.
What happens in carbohydrate metabolism if there is a defect in Aldolase B?
F1P won’t be able to split into DHAP and Glyceraldehyde
How is PDH and AKGDH affected by a defect in Vitamin B1?
Pyruvate cannot be bound and lipoate cannot be reduced
How is PDH and AKGDH affected by a defect in Vitamin B2?
Lipoate cannot be oxidized
How is PDH and AKGDH affected by a defect in Vitamin B3?
FAD cannot be oxidized
How is PDH and AKGDH affected by a defect in Vitamin B5?
No acetyl release from lysine lipoate
How is PDH and AKGDH affected by a defect in Lipoate?
B1 is not reset and there is no carbohydrate release
Pyruvate Dehydrogenase is an example of __________ because the intermediates remain within the complex and energy coupling is highly controlled.
Pyruvate Dehydrogenase and Alpha-Ketoglutarate Dehydrogenase are examples of ______ due to the same complexes of enzymes and cofactors.
______ is a cofactor of aconitase.
How is Kreb’s Cycle impacted by Anemia and why?
Slows Kreb’s due to a lack of iron in the system
_____ is a cofactor of the isocitrate dehydrogenase reaction
What does Succinate Dehydrogenase use as a cofactor?
What is the cofactor for the Malate Dehydrogenase reaction?
What 4 molecules stimulate Pyruvate dehydrogenase?
What 4 molecules inhibit Pyruvate Dehydrogenase?
What stimulates Citrate Synthase?
What 4 molecules inhibit Citrate Synthase?
What 2 molecules stimulate Isocitrate Dehydrogenase?
What inhibits Isocitrate Dehydrogenase?
What allosteric regulators are stimulated by Ca2+?
What allosteric regulators are stimulated by ADP?
What Allosteric regulators are inhibited by ATP?
What allosteric regulators are inhibited by NADH?
Which allosteric regulator is stimulated by AMP?
Which allosteric regulator is stimulated by CoASH?
Which allosteric regulator is stimulated by NAD+?
Which allosteric regulator is inhibited by Acetyl CoA?