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Semester 2 Adam KCU Physiology II Exam Review > Exam 1 Review Questions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 1 Review Questions Deck (77):
1

The nucleus ruber (“red nucleus”) in the mesencephalon would be best characterized by which of the following descriptions?

A collection of myelinated axons in the midbrain
A collection of myelinated dendrites in the midbrain
A collection of cell bodies and dendrites in the midbrain
A collection of unmyelinated axons in the midbrain

A collection of cell bodies and dendrites in the midbrain

2

Which of the following is not a necessary component of a synapse?

Presynaptic Membrane
Postsynaptic Membrane
Synaptic Cleft
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum

Sarcoplasmic Reticulum

3

The thalamus is derived from which of the following brain divisions?

Telencephalon
Diencephalon
Mesencephalon
Metencephalon
Myelencephalon

Diencephalon

4

In which of the following forms of spina bifida are only meninges found in the sac?

Occulta
Meningocele
Meningomyelocele
Myeloschisis

Meningocele

5

The Superior colliculi for visual reflexes and the inferior colliculi for auditory and olfactory reflexes are located in the tectum (roof) of which of the following subdivisions of the brain?

Telencephalon
Diencephalon
Mesencephalon
Metencephalon
Myelencephalon

Mesencephalon

6

Cell bodies of alpha motor neurons are located in which of the following areas of the spinal cord?

Dorsal (posterior) horns
Ventral (anterior) horns
Dorsal Root Ganglia
Substania Gelantinosa
Paravertebral Ganglia

Ventral (anterior) horns

7

Which of the following is the neurotransmitter used by many areas of the cerebral cortex and is always excitatory?

Serotonin
Glutamate
Dopamine
GABA
Glycine

Glutamate

8

Which of the following landmarks demarcates the sensory cortex from the motor cortex?

Lateral Sulcus
Central Sulcus
Insula
Angular Gyrus

Central Sulcus

9

Which of the following characteristics of dendrites is responsible for decremental conduction?

Lack of myelination
Relatively short length
Leakage of potassium ions
Leakage of sodium ions

Leakage of potassium ions

10

Which of the brain’s cerebral lobes is responsible for interpreting olfactory and auditory sensations?

Occipital Lobe
Frontal Lobe
Parietal Lobe
Temporal Lobe

Temporal Lobe

11

Which neurotransmitter is responsible for signaling by the alpha motor neuron?

Acetylcholine
Dopamine
Glycine
Glutamate

Acetylcholine

12

Sensory group III afferent neurons send signals to which neurons that relay signals to both ipsilateral and contralateral muscles?

Renshaw Cells
Gamma Motor Neurons
Alpha Motor Neurons
Excitatory Interneurons

Excitatory Interneurons

13

Electrotonic Conduction is utilized predominantly by the:

Axon
Dendrite
Axon Hillock
Synapse

Dendrite

14

One of the functions of the thalamus is to:

Control large skeletal muscle movements
Initiate cognitive processes
Relay all sensory information, except smell, to the cerebral cortex
Connect the nervous system to the endocrine system

Relay all sensory information, except smell, to the cerebral cortex

15

Which interneurons is responsible for inhibition of antagonistic muscle groups?

Renshaw cells
Ia inhibitory interneurons
Ib inhibitory interneurons
Gamma Motor Neurons

Ia inhibitory interneurons

16

Ionotropic receptors are characterized by which of the following?

Activation results in opening of an ion channel
Binding of a neurotransmitter directly to an ion channel
Activation results in changes in gene expression in the postsynaptic neuron
Always involves binding to a G protein for activation

Activation results in opening of an ion channel

17

Synaptic delay refers to the time it takes to transmit a signal from a presynaptic neuron to a postsynaptic neuron. It depends on a number of factors. Which of the following would NOT be associated with synaptic delay?

Time it takes to release the neurotransmitter from the presynaptic neuron
Time it takes for the neurotransmitter to diffuse across the synaptic cleft
Time it takes to jump from one node of Ranvier to the next one
Time it takes for the receptor to increase membrane permeability

Time it takes to jump from one node of Ranvier to the next one

18

A memory system that has been discovered in the sea snail Aplysia includes a facilitator terminal synapsing with a sensory neuron. If a noxious stimulus excites the facilitator terminal at the same time that the sensory terminal is stimulated the release of a neurotransmitter by the facilitator terminal causes the memory pathway through the sensory terminal to become facilitated for a period of time. The neurotransmitter released by the facilitator terminal is which of the following?

Acetylcholine
Norepinephrine
Serotonin
Dopamine

Serotonin

19

Damage to which of the following cortical areas would impair transmission of information from the visual cortex to the area where comprehension of the printed word occurs?

Supplemental Visual Cortex
Wernicke’s area
Angular gyrus
Broca’s area
Limbic association area

Angular gyrus

20

The Corpus Callosum is the major commissure between the two cerebral hemispheres. Cutting the Corpus Callosum would result in which of the following deficits?

Loss of 2-point discrimination from the right side of the brain into Wernicke’s area
Loss of transfer of visual info from the right hemisphere into Wernicke’s area
Loss of transfer of visual info from the left hemisphere into Wernicke’s area
Loss of pain sensation from the right hemisphere into Wernicke’s area

Loss of transfer of visual info from the right hemisphere into Wernicke’s area

21

Which of the following represents the major relay center for most afferent (sensory) pathways to the cerebral cortex? When the connections between this relay center and the cortex are cut, the functions of the corresponding cortical areas become almost entirely lost.

Thalamus
Basal Nuclei
Nucleus Ruber
Reticular Formation

Thalamus

22

Most output neurons from the cerebral cortex originate from which of the following cortical layers?

I and II
II and III
III and IV
IV and V
V and VI

V and VI

23

Which of following association areas plays the greatest single role of any part of the cerebral cortex for intelligence?

Broca’s area
Postcentral gyrus
Precentral gyrus
Wernicke’s area

Wernicke’s area

24

In most individuals the left cerebral hemisphere is considered dominant. Which of the following areas in the left hemisphere does not display dominance in either hemisphere?

Wernicke’s area
Primary sensory cortex
Broca’s Area
Angular Gyrus

Primary sensory cortex

25

Spatial summation increasing signal strength is transmitted by using progressively greater numbers of fiber.

True
False

True

26

In the neuronal pool, which of the following terms refers to all the output fibers that are stimulated by an incoming fiber?

Facilitated zone
Inhibition zone
Discharge zone
Converging zone

Discharge Zone

27

The Pacinian corpuscle is a specialized pressure receptor built around the axon of a sensory neuron. Local potentials are created when layers around the sensory nerve ending are deformed as a result of the application of pressure to the skin. Where in the transmission pathway are these local potentials converted to an axon potential?

Axon hillock
Cell body of the neuron
First Node of Ranvier
Within the capsule surrounding the end of the neuron

First Node of Ranvier

28

Which of the following nerve actions would be least affected in an individual with Arnold Chiari defect?

Hearing
Movement of the tongue
Movement of eye upward
Facial expression

Movement of eye upward

29

Many drugs are known to increase the excitability of neurons reducing the threshold for excitation of the neuron, while others are known to decrease excitability. Which of the following is one of the best known agents for increasing excitability by inhibiting the action of some normally inhibitory transmitter substances?

Caffeine
Theophylline
Theobromine
Strychnine

Strychnine

30

Which of the following functions as the major area for language comprehension?

Broca’s area
Medial geniculate nucleus
Thalamus
Wernicke’s area

Wernicke’s area

31

Neurons in the cerebral cortex are generally grouped into several classes. Which of the following class of neurons is characterized by short axons and functions as interneurons, utilizing either glutamate (excitatory) or GABA (inhibitory) as their neurotransmitter?

Purkinje Cells
Granular Cells
Fusiform Cells
Pyramidal Cells

Granular Cells

32

Which of the following characteristics would be true of tonic receptors but not phasic receptors?

Slow adapting
Do not transmit a continuous signal
Stimulated only when stimulus strength changes
Transmit information regarding rate of change

Slow adapting

33

Which of the following characteristics refers to the specificity of nerve fibers for transmitting only one modality of sensation?

Differential sensitivity
Modality
Labeled line principle
Adaptability threshold

Labeled line principle

34

In addition to the stimuli that elicit fast pain, slow pain can also be elicited by which of the following kinds of stimuli?

Mechanical
Thermal
Pressure
Chemical

Chemical

35

Which of the following characterizes fast pain?

It begins about 1 second after the stimulus is applied
It is carried by alpha-delta fibers
It can be elicited by mechanical, thermal and chemical stimuli
Fibers carrying fast pain terminate in the substantia gelatinosa

It is carried by alpha-delta fibers

36

Thermain sensations are carried in pathways that parallel which of the following pathways?

Pain
2-point sensation
Vibration
Crude Touch

Pain

37

The cerebral cortex has been mapped and divided into specific areas known as Brodmann’s areas. The sensory cortex is associated with which of the following Brodmann’s Areas?

1,2,3
4
7A, 40
44

1,2,3 (“1,2,3..can’t hurt me”)

38

Lesions (damage) to which of the following pathways would affect the transmission of temperature stimuli?

Lateral spinothalamic pathways
Anterior spinothalamic pathway
Dorsal column pathways
Fasciculus cuneatus pathway
Fasciculus gracilis pathway

Lateral spinothalamic pathways

39

Although a small number of fibers in the slow-chronic paleospinothalamic pathways pass all the way to the thalamus, most fibers terminate in which of the following areas?

Somatosensory cortex
Basal nuclei
Reticular formation
Ventrobasal nuclei

Reticular formation

40

Which of the following is one of the major components of analgesia system?

Periaqueductal gray
Locus coeruleus
Nucleus ruber
Thalamus

Periaqueductal gray

41

Which of the following is NOT one of the major components of the analgesia system?

Periaqueductal gray
Raphe magnus nucleus
Nuclear Ruber
All of the above are components of the analgesia system

Nuclear Ruber

42

In typical sensory pathways, decussation occurs at what level?

Primary (first order) neurons
Secondary (second order neurons)
Teritaly (third order neurons
None of the above

Secondary (second order neurons)

43

In typical sensory pathways, tertiary (third order) neurons typically terminate in which of the following areas?

Somatosensory cortex
Reticular formation
Basal nuclei
Thalamus

Somatosensory cortex

44

Critical types of tactile signals, such as two-point discrimination, are transmitted through which of the following?

Dorsal column-medial lemniscal pathway
Spinoreticular pathway
Pyramidal pathway
Spinothalamic Pathway

Dorsal column-medial lemniscal pathway

45

In the slow-chronic paleospinothalamic pathways a small number of fibers pass all the way to the thalamus, but most fibers terminate where?

In the somatosensory cortex
In the basal nuclei
In the reticular formation
In the ventrobasal nuclei

In the reticular formation

46

Which of the following is NOT characteristic of the Brown-Sequard syndrome?

All motor functions are blocked on the side of the trassection below the level of transection
Sensations of pain, heat and cold are lost on the side of the transection below the level of transection
Two-point discrimination sensations are lost on the side of the transection below the level of transection
All the above are characteristics of the Brown-sequard syndrome

Sensations of pain, heat and cold are lost on the side of the transection below the level of transection

47

Which of the following pathways carries conscious perception rather than unconscious perception?

Medial lemniscal
Spinocerebellar
Spino-olivary
Spinotectal

Medial lemniscal

48

Which of the following areas is almost completely insensitive to visceral pain?

Ureter
Bile Duct
Liver Parenchyma
Parietal Pleura

Liver Parenchyma

49

The total refractive power of the human eye is about which of the following?

10 diopters
25 diopters
40 diopters
60 diopters

60 diopters

50

Which of the following is a measure of how much a lens bends light waves and is equal to 1 meter divided by the focal length of the lens?

Refractive index
Visual acuity
Refractive power
Depth of focus

Refractive power

51

What is the maximum visual acuity of the human eye for a two-point source of light?

1 nm
2 micrometer
10 millimeter
20 cm

2 micrometer

52

An eyeball that is too short will cause the light rays coming from distant objects to be focused behind the retina. This condition is referred to as which of the following? (Check the other terms)

Emmetropia
Hyperopia
Myopia
Astigmatism
Presbyropia

Presbyropia

53

An eyeball that is too long will cause the light rays coming from distant objects to be focused in front of the retina. This condition is referred to as which of the following?

Emmetropia
Hyperopia
Myopia
Astigmatism
Presbyropia

Myopia

54

Which of the following is a characteristic of myopia?

Ciliary muscles are contracted
All distant objects can be seen clearly
The lens system is too weak
The eyeball is too long

The eyeball is too long

55

The impingement of photos on a rod cell in the retina will cause rhodopsin to dissociate into which of the following?

Scotopsin and 11-cis retinal
Scotopsin and 11-cis retinal
Scotopsin metarhodopsin
Scotopsin and all-trans retinal
Iodopsin and 11-cis retinal

Scotopsin and all-trans retinal

56

Which of the following statements regarding ion flow through trod membranes in the dark is FALSE?

The outer rod segment is leaky to sodium ions
The inner rod segment continually pumps sodium ions to the outside
The inner rod segment is leaky to potassium ions
cGMP gated channels are open in the outer rod segment
The inside of the rod membrane has a potential of -70 mV

The inside of the rod membrane has a potential of -70 mV

57

In the rods, cGMP sodium gates are closed when phosphodiesterase is activated by which of the following?

Transducin
Metarhodopsin
Scotopsin
11-cis retinal
All-trans retinal

Transducin

58

How much of the signal is allowed to pass to the visual cortex (gating control) is determined by which of the following?

Amacrine cells
Ganglion cells
Lateral geniculate nucleus
Interplexiform cells
Color blobs in the visual cortex

Lateral geniculate nucleus

59

Transmission pathways in the foveal region of the retina can be grouped into two different categories: 3-neuron and 4-neuron. Both types of pathways share the same types of neurons. The 4-neuron pathway differs from the 3-neuron pathway because it also utilized which of the following types of neurons?

Cones
Bipolar cells
Ganglion Cells
Amacrine cells

Amacrine cells

60

Which of the following is a characteristic of “X’ ganglion cells?

The have the smallest axon diameter of all the ganglion cells
They have broad fields in the peripheral retina
They make up approximately 5% of all the ganglion cells
They are probably responsible for all color vision

They are probably responsible for all color vision

61

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of layers III-VI of the lateral geniculate nucleus?

They constitute the magnocellular region of the lateral geniculate nucleus
They are associated with accurate point-to-point transmission
Almost all their input is via X type ganglion cells
They transmit color

They constitute the magnocellular region of the lateral geniculate nucleus

62

Which of the following cell types respond to rapid changes in the visual image?

Bipolar cells
Amacrine cells
X type ganglion cells
Y type ganglion cells
Z type ganglion cells

Y type ganglion cells

63

Axons on which of the following cells make up the optic nerve?

Bipolar cells
Amacrine cells
Interplexiform cells
Ganglion cells
Rod and Cone cells

Ganglion cells

64

Sensory information entering the central nervous system typically decussates (crosses over) at some point in the spinal cord or brain. For visual information, the decussation occurs in the optic chiasma. How much decussation occurs in the optic chiasma?

25%
50%
75%
100%

50%

65

In children the refractive power of the lens can be voluntarily increased from 20 to 34 diopters (an accommodation of 14 diopters). In a person fo 70 years of age, accommodation is reduced to which of the following levels?

0
15
20
27

0

66

The primary visual cortex is made up of how many layers?

4
6
8
12

6

67

Which of the following principles states that the nervous system detects sound frequencies by determination positions along the basilar membrane that are most stimulated?

Attenuation reflex
Impedance matching
Principle of Corti
Place Principle

Place Principle

68

Which of the following descriptions best describes the hair fibers arranged along the basilar membrane form the oval window to the apex of the cochlea?

Length of fibers increases from the oval window to the apex and diameter of the fibers decreases from the oval window to the apex

Length of fibers decreases from the oval window to the apex and diameter of the fibers increases form the oval window to the apex

Both length and diameter of the fibers increases from the oval window to the apex

Both length and diameter of the fibers decreases from the oval window to the apex

Length of fibers increases from the oval window to the apex and diameter of the fibers decreases from the oval window to the apex

69

The endocochlear potential of +80 mV is largely due to which of the following factors?

High concentration of potassium in the endolymph
High concentration of sodium in the endolymph
High concentration of potassium in the perilymph
Low concentration of sodium in the perilymph

High concentration of potassium in the endolymph

70

The tensor tympani and stapedius muscles attach to the malleus and stapedius respectfully. Which of the following represents the function of these two muscles?

Attenuation reflex
Impedance matching
Creation of “traveling wave”
Creation of endocochlear potential

Attenuation reflex → dampen the movement of the malleus and stapedius so you can ignore your own voice when you’re talking

71

Which is the correct conduction pathway sequence in the middle ear?

Tympanic membrane → Malleus → Incus → Stapes → Oval window
Tympanic Membrane → Malleus → Incus → Stapes → Round window
Tympanic membrane → Malleus → Stapes → Incus → Round Window
Tympanic membrane → Incus→ Malleus → Stapes → Oval window

Tympanic membrane → Malleus → Incus → Stapes → Oval window

72

Reissner's membrane seperate which of the following pairs of chambers?

Scala Tympani/Scala Media
Scala Vestibuli/Scala Media
Scala tympani/scala vestibuli
None of the above

Scala Vestibuli/Scala Media

73

Which of the following separates the scala media from the scala vestibuli, thereby maintaining a special fluid within the scala media?

Tectorial Membrane
Reissner’s Membrane
Stria vascularis
Organ of Corti

Reissner’s Membrane

74

Collaterals from the auditory tracts activate the entire nervous system in response to loud noises. Where would you expect these collateral to terminate?

Cerebral Cortex
Thalamus
Red Nucleus
Reticular Activating System

Reticular Activating System

75

Decussation of the auditory pathways occurs in all of the places listed below except?

Trapezoid body
Lateral lemniscal nuclei
Commissure connecting the inferior colliculi
Thalamus

Thalamus

76

Stereocilia (hairs) of the auditory hair cells are embedded in which of the following?

Reissner’s Membrane
Basilar Membrane
Tectorial Membrane
Reticular Lamina

Tectorial Membrane

77

Which of the following sequences represents the correct order of structure involved in the pathway for the transmission of auditory information?

Dorsal Ventral cochlear nuclei; Superior olivary nucleus; Medial Geniculate nucleus (thalamus); Auditory cortex

Lateral Lemniscus’ nucleus; Superior olivary nucleus; Dorsal and ventral cochlear nuclei; Auditory cortex

Medial geniculate nucleus; lateral leniscus’s nucleus; Superior olivary nucleus; Dorsal and ventral cochlear nuclei

Dorsal and ventral cochlear nuclei; superior olivary nucleus; auditory cortex; medial geniculate nucleus (thalamus)

Dorsal Ventral cochlear nuclei; Superior olivary nucleus; Medial Geniculate nucleus (thalamus); Auditory cortex