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Flashcards in Exam 1 study guide Deck (70):
1

what does the somatic nervous system control?

voluntary and reflex activities

2

the structural and functional center of the entire nervous system that includes the brain, contained within the skull, and the spinal cord, contained within the vertebral canal

central nervous system

3

how much anesthetic can a healthy patient receive?

5.5 cartridges.. 1:50,000

4

how many states permit the use of nitrous oxide by the dental hygienist?

33 states

5

what is the most popular anesthetic used?

lidocaine

6

What does a higher pKa result in?

slow onset

7

topical anesthetic concentration verses injectable?

higher

8

which drug causes more allergic reactions?

esters

9

the study of the action of drugs within the body

pharmacokinetics

10

What are some signs that a patient is anxious?

white knuckle syndrome
overwillingness to cooperate
no eye contact
sweaty palms

11

what is the best way to manage an anxious patient?

Try to prevent anxiety

12

another term for excreting..

biotransformation

13

what is aspirin?

analgesic and antipyretic

14

what is the pH of the solution manipulated by?

the manufacturer to complement the specific molecular structure of each anesthetic

15

what improves the lipid solubility of the molecule?

lipophilic aromatic ring

16

along myelinated nerve fibers, gaps in the sheath between adjacent schwann cells are called...

nodes of ranvier

17

this division coordinates the body’s normal resting activities and is known as the rest or digest response

parasympathetic

18

most potent anesthetic?

bupivicaine

19

these are not manufactured in the united states anymore

esters

20

what increases risk for overdose?

injecting into a vessel

21

the primary excretory organ for the metabolites of all local anesthetic agents

kidneys

22

conduct signals from sensory neurons to the spinal cord or brain (carry toward)

afferent nerves

23

an excitable cell that is the basic functional unit of the nervous system, specialized in sending impulses and making all nervous system functions possible

neurons

24

occurs once the peak of the action potential is reached the membrane potential begins to move back toward the resting potential

repolarization

25

the most widely used vasoconstrictor and most potent

epinephrine

26

the higher the pKa, fewer base molecules ?

slower onset

27

also known as a nerve impulse, and is a spike of positive and negative ionic discharge that travels along the membrane of the cell

action potential

28

local anesthetic drugs act mainly by inhibiting sodium influx through sodium specific ion channels in the neuronal cell membrane....

voltage gated sodium channels

29

conduct signals away from the brain or spinal cord along motor neurons to their target muscles and glands (carry away)

efferent nerves

30

what are the mechanisms of action of drugs?

drug absorption, distributin, metabolism and excretin

31

which leaves the body faster, vasoconstrictor or dilator?

vasoconstrictor... leaves body within 5-10 min

32

what are the two vasoconstrictors added to local anesthetic drugs?

epinephrine and levondordefrin

33

subdivision of the efferent division of PNS and controls the body’s voluntary and reflex activities through somatic sensory and somatic motor components

somatic nervous system

34

this results from the efflux of positively charged potassium ions to an area of lower concentration out of the cell

repolarization

35

what was the first local anesthetic?

cocaine

36

nerve tissues that lie in the periphery or outer regions of the nervous system consisting of 31 pairs of spinal nerves arising from the spinal cord and 12 pairs of cranial nerves arising from the brain

peripheral nervous system

37

why is lipid solubility important?

makes the drug more potent

38

why would people object to use nitrous?

ethics on operating on an unconscious patient

religious offense

type of patient (overall health)

39

the local anesthetic consists of three components...

lipophilic aromatic ring, intermediate hydrocarbon, hydrophilic terminal amine

40

people with what type of problems have a slower rate of excreting a drug?

liver

41

what are vasoconstrictors referred to as?

sympathomimetic or adrenergic drugs

42

the maximum recommended dose of epinephrine got a cardiovascular compromised patient?

0.04 mg

43

what do early methods of pain reduction include?

religious techniques of scaring off demons, prayin for the touch of god. also, plants and herbs including roots and berries, and seeds.

44

what is the CNS responsible for receiving?

sensory information, processing i formation and initiating an outgoing response

45

what causes depolarization?

after the stimulus goes above the threshold potential, more gated ion channels are stimulated to open and allow more Na+ inside the cell

46

hydrophilic is?

water soluble

47

the greater the lipid solubility of the anesthetic molecule, the greater the?

potency of the drug

48

what does a lower pKa result in?

rapid onset

49

when was aspirin introduced?

1899

50

what is a loss of nociception?

pain receptor

51

this is defined as the time interval between the initial deposition of the anesthetic solution at the nerve site and complete conduction blockade

induction time

52

the higher the pH the...

the more alkaline the solution

53

layer of connective tissue that surrounds the entire nerve

epineurium

54

the lower the pH the more....

acidic the solution

55

What types of people have higher pain tolerance?

older people

56

a layer of connective tissue that surrounds each axon of a nerve

endoneurium

57

what ingredient is in aspirin?

salicylic acid

58

the functional unit for communication between the CNS and all parts of the body

neurons

59

where are nerves found?

peripheral nervous system

60

the lower the pKa, more base molecules?

rapid onset

61

rapidly diminishing response to successive doses of a drug, rendering it less effective...the effect is common with drugs acting on the nervous system

tachyphylaxis

62

this division of the autonomic nervous system prepares the body to deal with an emergency situation involved in flight or fight response

sympathetic

63

what is the job of the vasoconstrictor?

to counteract with the vasodilator

64

what do anesthetics bind to?

receptors (takes longer to wear off)

65

most recent anesthetic introduced in 2000?

Articaine

66

the period of time it takes for 50% of the drug to be metabolized and removed from the body

half life

67

for the anesthetic predicts the proportion of molecules that exists in each of these states..

dissociation constant (pKa)

68

what are the 2 major groups of local anesthetic?

amides and esters

69

what is the mechanism of action of injection?

bunds to sodium channels

70

what are the two major delivery methods of local anesthetic?

topical and submucosal injection