Flashcards in Exam 1 study guide Deck (70):
what does the somatic nervous system control?
voluntary and reflex activities
the structural and functional center of the entire nervous system that includes the brain, contained within the skull, and the spinal cord, contained within the vertebral canal
central nervous system
how much anesthetic can a healthy patient receive?
5.5 cartridges.. 1:50,000
how many states permit the use of nitrous oxide by the dental hygienist?
what is the most popular anesthetic used?
What does a higher pKa result in?
topical anesthetic concentration verses injectable?
which drug causes more allergic reactions?
the study of the action of drugs within the body
What are some signs that a patient is anxious?
white knuckle syndrome
overwillingness to cooperate
no eye contact
what is the best way to manage an anxious patient?
Try to prevent anxiety
another term for excreting..
what is aspirin?
analgesic and antipyretic
what is the pH of the solution manipulated by?
the manufacturer to complement the specific molecular structure of each anesthetic
what improves the lipid solubility of the molecule?
lipophilic aromatic ring
along myelinated nerve fibers, gaps in the sheath between adjacent schwann cells are called...
nodes of ranvier
this division coordinates the body’s normal resting activities and is known as the rest or digest response
most potent anesthetic?
these are not manufactured in the united states anymore
what increases risk for overdose?
injecting into a vessel
the primary excretory organ for the metabolites of all local anesthetic agents
conduct signals from sensory neurons to the spinal cord or brain (carry toward)
an excitable cell that is the basic functional unit of the nervous system, specialized in sending impulses and making all nervous system functions possible
occurs once the peak of the action potential is reached the membrane potential begins to move back toward the resting potential
the most widely used vasoconstrictor and most potent
the higher the pKa, fewer base molecules ?
also known as a nerve impulse, and is a spike of positive and negative ionic discharge that travels along the membrane of the cell
local anesthetic drugs act mainly by inhibiting sodium influx through sodium specific ion channels in the neuronal cell membrane....
voltage gated sodium channels
conduct signals away from the brain or spinal cord along motor neurons to their target muscles and glands (carry away)
what are the mechanisms of action of drugs?
drug absorption, distributin, metabolism and excretin
which leaves the body faster, vasoconstrictor or dilator?
vasoconstrictor... leaves body within 5-10 min
what are the two vasoconstrictors added to local anesthetic drugs?
epinephrine and levondordefrin
subdivision of the efferent division of PNS and controls the body’s voluntary and reflex activities through somatic sensory and somatic motor components
somatic nervous system
this results from the efflux of positively charged potassium ions to an area of lower concentration out of the cell
what was the first local anesthetic?
nerve tissues that lie in the periphery or outer regions of the nervous system consisting of 31 pairs of spinal nerves arising from the spinal cord and 12 pairs of cranial nerves arising from the brain
peripheral nervous system
why is lipid solubility important?
makes the drug more potent
why would people object to use nitrous?
ethics on operating on an unconscious patient
type of patient (overall health)
the local anesthetic consists of three components...
lipophilic aromatic ring, intermediate hydrocarbon, hydrophilic terminal amine
people with what type of problems have a slower rate of excreting a drug?
what are vasoconstrictors referred to as?
sympathomimetic or adrenergic drugs
the maximum recommended dose of epinephrine got a cardiovascular compromised patient?
what do early methods of pain reduction include?
religious techniques of scaring off demons, prayin for the touch of god. also, plants and herbs including roots and berries, and seeds.
what is the CNS responsible for receiving?
sensory information, processing i formation and initiating an outgoing response
what causes depolarization?
after the stimulus goes above the threshold potential, more gated ion channels are stimulated to open and allow more Na+ inside the cell
the greater the lipid solubility of the anesthetic molecule, the greater the?
potency of the drug
what does a lower pKa result in?
when was aspirin introduced?
what is a loss of nociception?
this is defined as the time interval between the initial deposition of the anesthetic solution at the nerve site and complete conduction blockade
the higher the pH the...
the more alkaline the solution
layer of connective tissue that surrounds the entire nerve
the lower the pH the more....
acidic the solution
What types of people have higher pain tolerance?
a layer of connective tissue that surrounds each axon of a nerve
what ingredient is in aspirin?
the functional unit for communication between the CNS and all parts of the body
where are nerves found?
peripheral nervous system
the lower the pKa, more base molecules?
rapidly diminishing response to successive doses of a drug, rendering it less effective...the effect is common with drugs acting on the nervous system
this division of the autonomic nervous system prepares the body to deal with an emergency situation involved in flight or fight response
what is the job of the vasoconstrictor?
to counteract with the vasodilator
what do anesthetics bind to?
receptors (takes longer to wear off)
most recent anesthetic introduced in 2000?
the period of time it takes for 50% of the drug to be metabolized and removed from the body
for the anesthetic predicts the proportion of molecules that exists in each of these states..
dissociation constant (pKa)
what are the 2 major groups of local anesthetic?
amides and esters
what is the mechanism of action of injection?
bunds to sodium channels