Exam 1 - Week 4/5 Chapter 8 & 4 Flashcards Preview

Evolution > Exam 1 - Week 4/5 Chapter 8 & 4 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 1 - Week 4/5 Chapter 8 & 4 Deck (15):
1

Essence of natural selection

more offspring produced in a pop than can survive
Variation in characteristics occurs in the population
Variation in biological fitness occurs in the population
individuals in the population compete for resources

2

influence which individuals with a given genetic phenotype will best survive and compete, and thus will leave the most offspring in the next generation

prevailing environmental conditions

3

why are the gophers of white sands national monument not white when gophers elsewhere match moist soil coloration

trade off - dark pigmentation is more resistant to wear and tear.

4

sesamoid bone

a bone embedded within a tendon
pandas - acts like a 6th finger to help hold onto bamboo
moles - makes hand paddle like so its easier to dig

5

what is the BEST measure of fitness

the number of copies of your genes left in future generations; extremely hard to measure

6

convergent evolution

the independent origin of similar traits in separate evolutionary lineages
ex. wings (seen in birds, bats, beetles - but they are all in different lineages)

7

a visual representation of the evolutionary history of populations, genes, or species

phylogeny

8

analogous structures

structures that are similar because they have converged on a shared form. they are not derived from a common ancestor

9

character state similarity not due to shared descent (produced by convergent evolution or evolutionary reversal)

homoplasy

10

monophyletic groups

groups of organisms that form a clade

11

an organism and all of its descendants

clade

12

a shared derived character; this is a character that evolved in an immediate common ancestor

synapomorphy

13

convergent evolution

(a cause of homoplasy) independent evolution of similar trait

14

evolutionary reversals

(a cause of homoplasy) reversion back to an ancestral character state

15

a criterion for selecting amoung alternative patters or explanations based on minimizing the total amount of change or complexity

parsimony