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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (25):
1

Socialization

the ongoing process of learning the ways of one's culture

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Sociobiology

Study of the biological basis of social behavior

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Nature vs nurture debate

relationship between what people inherit and what they learn

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Symbolic interaction

several theorists maintain that individuals develop social identities through symbolic interactions, an interpersonal process using language, symbols, reinforcement and sanctions.

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the looking-glass self

argued that people acquire a sense of who they are by evaluating themselves through the eyes of others, imagining how these others might react to a particular behavior

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significant others

an individual who serves as the most important person, and therefore a crucial role model in another individual's life

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generalized other

a concept developed to refer to the attitude of the larger community assumed by an individual to be important

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Conflict perspective/theory

The view that social divisions and struggles characterized by society; also the belief that social change is a result of conflict

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Id

A primitive, almost feral self that compels individuals to focus on their own personal pleasure

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Ego

The rational self that controls the urges of the individual

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Superego

As described by Freud, the conscience that functions as the restraining force of the id and the ego, reinforcing the limiting rules of social behavoir

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Resocialization

process in which the individual's previous self is dismantled and replaced with a new, more acceptable social identity

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Total institutions

Institutions in which individuals are completely isolated from the rest of society for an extended period of time; for example, mental institutions

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degradation ceremony

The process in which socialization agents attack and devalue an individual's existing identity in an effort to break it down and build a new one.

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Political socialization

The process through which people internalize a political identity that defines who they are and how they should behave in the political and economic institutions of society

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Socialization agents

Elements that bring about hte process of socialization; the agents can be grouped into seven categories

  1. family
  2. peers
  3. school
  4. religion
  5. work
  6. media
  7. toys, games, and recreational activities

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reference group

a group to whom individuals look for approval, guidance, and role models.

example- peer groups

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Liberation theology

propagated mostly in Latin American catholic churches, this theology stresses a refusal to accept poverty, challenge higher authorities if they are oppressive or punitive, civil disobedience, and the legitimacy of nontraditional lifestyles. 

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Symbolic annihilation

limiting the kinds of people viewers see especially in positive roles, largely to white, middle class, heterosexual, able-bodied men

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Anticipatory socialization

the preparation for future roles (emphasizes independence)

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Self fulfilling prophecy

a phenomenon in which people achieve to the level expected of them rather than to the level of which they may actually be capable

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Second shift

when women work full-time outside the home, they still perform most of the household chores

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Compulsory heterosexuality

the adoption of a heterosexual public persona as a prerequisite for acceptance in mainstream society

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Stereotype threat

the anxiety experienced by individuals in marginalized groups when placed in situations there is a potential to perform in such a way as to conform to negative expectations of stereotypes

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