the ongoing process of learning the ways of one's culture
Study of the biological basis of social behavior
Nature vs nurture debate
relationship between what people inherit and what they learn
several theorists maintain that individuals develop social identities through symbolic interactions, an interpersonal process using language, symbols, reinforcement and sanctions.
the looking-glass self
argued that people acquire a sense of who they are by evaluating themselves through the eyes of others, imagining how these others might react to a particular behavior
an individual who serves as the most important person, and therefore a crucial role model in another individual's life
a concept developed to refer to the attitude of the larger community assumed by an individual to be important
The view that social divisions and struggles characterized by society; also the belief that social change is a result of conflict
A primitive, almost feral self that compels individuals to focus on their own personal pleasure
The rational self that controls the urges of the individual
As described by Freud, the conscience that functions as the restraining force of the id and the ego, reinforcing the limiting rules of social behavoir
process in which the individual's previous self is dismantled and replaced with a new, more acceptable social identity
Institutions in which individuals are completely isolated from the rest of society for an extended period of time; for example, mental institutions
The process in which socialization agents attack and devalue an individual's existing identity in an effort to break it down and build a new one.
The process through which people internalize a political identity that defines who they are and how they should behave in the political and economic institutions of society
Elements that bring about hte process of socialization; the agents can be grouped into seven categories
- toys, games, and recreational activities
a group to whom individuals look for approval, guidance, and role models.
example- peer groups
propagated mostly in Latin American catholic churches, this theology stresses a refusal to accept poverty, challenge higher authorities if they are oppressive or punitive, civil disobedience, and the legitimacy of nontraditional lifestyles.
limiting the kinds of people viewers see especially in positive roles, largely to white, middle class, heterosexual, able-bodied men
the preparation for future roles (emphasizes independence)
Self fulfilling prophecy
a phenomenon in which people achieve to the level expected of them rather than to the level of which they may actually be capable
when women work full-time outside the home, they still perform most of the household chores
the adoption of a heterosexual public persona as a prerequisite for acceptance in mainstream society
the anxiety experienced by individuals in marginalized groups when placed in situations there is a potential to perform in such a way as to conform to negative expectations of stereotypes