Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (90):
All cells except gametes; consist of 2 sets of 23 chromosomes; 46 chromosomes
Sex cell; haploid cell with only 23 chromosomes
Consists of some multiple of 23 chromosomes; 23 X ____
Has 3 sets of 23 chromosomes; 69 chromosomes
Has 4 sets of 23 chromosomes; 92 chromosomes
Doesn't consists of a set of 23 chromosomes; not a multi;e of 23
All sets of chromosomes laid out from largest to smallest
Codes for a protein
Section of a chromosome that codes for a specific gene
Alleles for the same gene are the same; AA or aa
Alleles for the same gene are different: Aa
What alleles are being expressed; what you can see
Total alleles that you have expressed or not
Separate the cell so to distribute equal amounts of genetic material to each gamete
Abnormal dividing of the cell where the chromosome doesn't split
You have 1 chromosome instead of two
You have 3 chromosomes instead of two
Proportion of individuals of a particular genotype that express its phenotypic effect in a given environment; think population
The relative capacity of a gene to affect the phenotype of the organism of which it is part; think individual
Encourage/cause destruction of DNA; radiation
Euploid cell that has more than the diploid number of chromosomes
Aneuploidy due to nondisjuction; trisomy of chromosome 21
Characteristics of Down Syndrome
Low nasal bridge, folded eyelids, large flat tongue, low set ears, heart defects, round face, and mental retardation
Female with monosomy of X chromosome
Characteristics of Turner's Syndrome
Sterile, short, webbed neck, underdeveloped breasts, wide nipples, and is inherited from the mother
Male with two or more X chromosomes and one Y; Triplo X
Characteristics of Klinefelter's Syndrome
Develop female like breast, small testes, sparse body hair, long limbs, wide hips, and abnormalities will increase with each X chromosome
Cri du chat (Cry of the cat)
Deletion of the short arm (p) of chromosome 5
Characteristics of Cri du chat
Low birth weight, microcephaly (small head), heart defects, and respiratory disorders
Is Cystic Fibrosis dominant or recessive?
What is the incidence of Cystic Fibrosis in caucasians?
1 in 200
What is the incidence of Cystic Fibrosis carriers in North America?
1 in 20
Cystic Fibrosis affects the transportation of what ion?
What will the lack of chloride transport cause?
A lack of water formation
What two systems are primarily affects by Cystic Fibrosis?
Respiratory and Gastrointestinal
In the gastrointestinal tract cystic fibrosis causes difficulty in absorbing what?
Protein, fats, and vitamins
In the respiratory system cystic fibrosis affects what functions due to thick mucus being secreted?
Bacteria growth in the lungs, blockage of the air way, and ruins the alveoli
List 5 complications of cystic fibrosis that will lead to death?
Emphysema, bronchitis, respiratory insufficiency, and heart failure
How is CF diagnosed?
What's the prognosis of CF?
How is CF treated?
Medications, physio therapy
Research for CF is focusing on what 3 areas?
Pharmacology, cure, and treatment
What are the 4 types of tissues in the body?
Epithelial, Muscle, Connective, and Nervous
Covers the inside of our organs; deals with the outside world; is used for protection and maintenance
Anything that holds an organ in place in supports the body;
Examples of Connective tissue
Blood, bone, ligaments, cartilage, and adipose tissue
Skeletal (voluntary), smooth (involuntary), and cardiac; provide movement for the body or something pertaining to it
Communication (CNS and PNS); homeostatic feedback
Syndrome seen in advanced stages of caner characterized by emaciation and low quality of life
Cancerous cells entering the blood or lymph
Cancerous tumor of the eye that is usually seen in children
Cancerous tumor of the bone
Cell that no longer respond to normal cell controls
Unrelated signs/sympotoms to the local effects of neoplasms
Formation of new blood vessels
The change from normal cells to malignant growth
Hyperplasia that results in atypical cells
Changing of normal cell type to another normal cell type atypical for that region
Glandular cancerous growth
Ability to mitotically divide without being bound to other cells
Cancerous growth that has the ability to metastasize
Certain cancers having an increased affinity of certain organs
Stage 4 cancer
Cell that are very poorly differentiated and have colonized in other organs
The mechanism that refers to the spreading of cancer
Something that has been attributed to increased risks of certain cancers
Stage 2 cancer
Cancerous cells that have spread to local lymphatics and are moderately differentiated
Stage 1 cancer
Cancerous cells inside the site or origin that are well differentiated
Cancerous cells leaving the blood or lymph
Non-self markers on a cancer cell
Carcinoma in Situ
Cancerous growth that has no invaded through the basement membrane
New growth that can be malignant or benign
Where cancerous cells break away from their original site
Stage 3 cancer
Poorly differentiated cancerous cells are found in original et and distant lymph nodes
Transformed genes that no longer control cell growth and differentiation
Potential cancerous cells; cause cell growth
Gene in all cells that acts in hypoxic environment and should cause apoptosis of the cell
Cytotoxic T cell
Looks fro TSA markers and promote apoptosis or flag for macrophages
Natural Killer cell
Recognizes cells with wrong antigen or no antigen and try to destroy them
List a few of the common causes of cancer
Radiation (breakage/deletion of DNA), inheritance, and chemical exposure (smoke, carcinogens)
Mechanisms and steps for Metastasis
Local growth of abnormal cells, detaches from original location, invasion and barrier destruction, intravasation into the blood or lymph, adheres to a favorable site (organ tropism), extravasation leaving the blood or lymph once arrived at new location, and colonization of new tissues
Characteristics of Benign tumors
Slow growth, encapsulated, non-invasive, well differentiated, low mitotic rate, and doesn't metastasize
Characteristics of Malignant tumors
Rapid growth, non-encapsulated, invade local structures and tissues, poorly differentiated, high mitotic rate, and metastasizes
List a few ways we treat cancer
Radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and surgical extraction
List the 4 stages of Mitosis
Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase
What is happening during prophase?
Mitotic spindle is formed and the chromatin changes to chromatids
What is occurring during metaphase?
Centromeres of chromatid pair line up at the metaphase plate (middle)
What is happening during anaphase?
Centromeres split and chromatids move to opposite sides of the cell