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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (90):
1

Diploid

All cells except gametes; consist of 2 sets of 23 chromosomes; 46 chromosomes

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Gametes

Sex cell; haploid cell with only 23 chromosomes

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Euploid

Consists of some multiple of 23 chromosomes; 23 X ____

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Triploid

Has 3 sets of 23 chromosomes; 69 chromosomes

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Tetraploid

Has 4 sets of 23 chromosomes; 92 chromosomes

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Aneuploidy

Doesn't consists of a set of 23 chromosomes; not a multi;e of 23

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Karyotype

All sets of chromosomes laid out from largest to smallest

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Gene

Codes for a protein

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Allele

Section of a chromosome that codes for a specific gene

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Homozygous

Alleles for the same gene are the same; AA or aa

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Heterozygous

Alleles for the same gene are different: Aa

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Phenotype

What alleles are being expressed; what you can see

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Genotype

Total alleles that you have expressed or not

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Disjunction

Separate the cell so to distribute equal amounts of genetic material to each gamete

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Nondisjunction

Abnormal dividing of the cell where the chromosome doesn't split

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Monosomy

You have 1 chromosome instead of two

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Trisomy

You have 3 chromosomes instead of two

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Dominant

Observable

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Recessive

Hidden

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Penetrance

Proportion of individuals of a particular genotype that express its phenotypic effect in a given environment; think population

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Expressivity

The relative capacity of a gene to affect the phenotype of the organism of which it is part; think individual

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Mutagen

Encourage/cause destruction of DNA; radiation

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Polyploid

Euploid cell that has more than the diploid number of chromosomes

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Down Syndrome

Aneuploidy due to nondisjuction; trisomy of chromosome 21

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Characteristics of Down Syndrome

Low nasal bridge, folded eyelids, large flat tongue, low set ears, heart defects, round face, and mental retardation

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Turner's Syndrome

Female with monosomy of X chromosome

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Characteristics of Turner's Syndrome

Sterile, short, webbed neck, underdeveloped breasts, wide nipples, and is inherited from the mother

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Klinefelter Syndrome

Male with two or more X chromosomes and one Y; Triplo X

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Characteristics of Klinefelter's Syndrome

Develop female like breast, small testes, sparse body hair, long limbs, wide hips, and abnormalities will increase with each X chromosome

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Cri du chat (Cry of the cat)

Deletion of the short arm (p) of chromosome 5

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Characteristics of Cri du chat

Low birth weight, microcephaly (small head), heart defects, and respiratory disorders

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Is Cystic Fibrosis dominant or recessive?

Recessive

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What is the incidence of Cystic Fibrosis in caucasians?

1 in 200

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What is the incidence of Cystic Fibrosis carriers in North America?

1 in 20

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Cystic Fibrosis affects the transportation of what ion?

Chloride

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What will the lack of chloride transport cause?

A lack of water formation

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What two systems are primarily affects by Cystic Fibrosis?

Respiratory and Gastrointestinal

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In the gastrointestinal tract cystic fibrosis causes difficulty in absorbing what?

Protein, fats, and vitamins

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In the respiratory system cystic fibrosis affects what functions due to thick mucus being secreted?

Bacteria growth in the lungs, blockage of the air way, and ruins the alveoli

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List 5 complications of cystic fibrosis that will lead to death?

Emphysema, bronchitis, respiratory insufficiency, and heart failure

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How is CF diagnosed?

Sweat test

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What's the prognosis of CF?

Fatal

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How is CF treated?

Medications, physio therapy

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Research for CF is focusing on what 3 areas?

Pharmacology, cure, and treatment

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What are the 4 types of tissues in the body?

Epithelial, Muscle, Connective, and Nervous

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Epithelial tissue

Covers the inside of our organs; deals with the outside world; is used for protection and maintenance

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Connective tissue

Anything that holds an organ in place in supports the body;

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Examples of Connective tissue

Blood, bone, ligaments, cartilage, and adipose tissue

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Muscle tissue

Skeletal (voluntary), smooth (involuntary), and cardiac; provide movement for the body or something pertaining to it

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Nervous tissue

Communication (CNS and PNS); homeostatic feedback

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Cachexia

Syndrome seen in advanced stages of caner characterized by emaciation and low quality of life

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Intravasation

Cancerous cells entering the blood or lymph

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Retinoblastoma

Cancerous tumor of the eye that is usually seen in children

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Osteosarcoma

Cancerous tumor of the bone

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Autonomy

Cell that no longer respond to normal cell controls

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Paraneuoplastic Syndrome

Unrelated signs/sympotoms to the local effects of neoplasms

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Angiogenesis

Formation of new blood vessels

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Transformation

The change from normal cells to malignant growth

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Dysplasia

Hyperplasia that results in atypical cells

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Metaplasia

Changing of normal cell type to another normal cell type atypical for that region

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Adenocarcinoma

Glandular cancerous growth

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Anchorage Independence

Ability to mitotically divide without being bound to other cells

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Anaplasia

Cancerous growth that has the ability to metastasize

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Organ tropism

Certain cancers having an increased affinity of certain organs

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Stage 4 cancer

Cell that are very poorly differentiated and have colonized in other organs

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Metastasis

The mechanism that refers to the spreading of cancer

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Carcinogen

Something that has been attributed to increased risks of certain cancers

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Stage 2 cancer

Cancerous cells that have spread to local lymphatics and are moderately differentiated

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Stage 1 cancer

Cancerous cells inside the site or origin that are well differentiated

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Extravasation

Cancerous cells leaving the blood or lymph

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TSA's

Non-self markers on a cancer cell

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Carcinoma in Situ

Cancerous growth that has no invaded through the basement membrane

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Neoplasm

New growth that can be malignant or benign

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Detachment

Where cancerous cells break away from their original site

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Stage 3 cancer

Poorly differentiated cancerous cells are found in original et and distant lymph nodes

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Oncogenes

Transformed genes that no longer control cell growth and differentiation

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Proto-oncogenes

Potential cancerous cells; cause cell growth

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P53

Gene in all cells that acts in hypoxic environment and should cause apoptosis of the cell

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Cytotoxic T cell

Looks fro TSA markers and promote apoptosis or flag for macrophages

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Natural Killer cell

Recognizes cells with wrong antigen or no antigen and try to destroy them

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List a few of the common causes of cancer

Radiation (breakage/deletion of DNA), inheritance, and chemical exposure (smoke, carcinogens)

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Mechanisms and steps for Metastasis

Local growth of abnormal cells, detaches from original location, invasion and barrier destruction, intravasation into the blood or lymph, adheres to a favorable site (organ tropism), extravasation leaving the blood or lymph once arrived at new location, and colonization of new tissues

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Characteristics of Benign tumors

Slow growth, encapsulated, non-invasive, well differentiated, low mitotic rate, and doesn't metastasize

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Characteristics of Malignant tumors

Rapid growth, non-encapsulated, invade local structures and tissues, poorly differentiated, high mitotic rate, and metastasizes

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List a few ways we treat cancer

Radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and surgical extraction

86

List the 4 stages of Mitosis

Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase

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What is happening during prophase?

Mitotic spindle is formed and the chromatin changes to chromatids

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What is occurring during metaphase?

Centromeres of chromatid pair line up at the metaphase plate (middle)

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What is happening during anaphase?

Centromeres split and chromatids move to opposite sides of the cell

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What is occurring during telophase?

A nuclear envelope forms and the chromosomes uncoil