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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (46):
0

Outer ear

Auricle

1

Tympanic membrane

Separates external from middle ear
Transmits sound waves

2

Middle ear

Conducts sound vibrations via ossicles

3

Eustachian tube

Equal air pressure

4

Otosclerosis

Rigid ossicles
Do not transmit sound well

5

Presbycusis

Normal hearing loss associated with old age

6

Vertigo

Subjective- you are spinning
Objective-room is spinning

7

Tinnitus

Ringing in ears

8

Meningitis

Inflammation of the meninges surrounding the brain and spinal cord

9

Hearing

Sound waves produce vibrations on ear drum, vibrations carries by ossicles to labyrinth, stimulates hair cells in corti, electrical impulses carried to brain

10

Normal findings in older adult

Cataracts, gluovoma, Mac degen, presbyopia, presbycusis, decreased year production, mouth dryness, diminished taste and smell

11

Apex of lung

2-3cm above the clavicle
T1 posterior ly

12

Base of lung

Rests on diaphragm
6th rib
Posteriourly t10 t12 on expansion

13

Respiratory center

Brainstem pons and medulla

14

Bronchial sounds

Loud, high pitched
Expiration longer than inspiration

15

Bronchovesicular sounds

Inspiration and expiration equal
Moderate pitch and volume

16

Vesicular

Soft low pitch
Longer on inspiration than expiration

17

Normal lung changes

More rigid harder to inflate, breathing muscles weaken, costal cartilage less mobile. Less surface area for has exchange

18

Inspection of chest

Straight, thorax symmetrical, ap to transverse should be 1:2

COPD will be 1:1

19

Tactile fremitus

Place hand on back and have them say 99..should slightly feel the vibrations

20

Abnormal lung sounds

Crackles (fluid)
Wheezing

21

Inspection of chest

Look for: Scars, lesions, shape of chest, symmetry of movement, use of muscles, even skin color, normal rhythm

22

Discontinuous lung sounds

Crackles (fine, course)
Atelectatic crackles
Pleural friction rub

23

Continuous lung sounds

Wheeze sibilant
Wheeze sonorous rhonchi
Stridor

24

Atria

Reservoirs for holding blood

25

Ventricles

Pumping chambers

26

Right side of heart

Receives blood from body and pumps to lungs via pulmonary artery

27

Left side of heart

Receives blood from lungs via pulmonary veins and pumps it into the body

28

2 atrioventricular valves

Mitral (left)
Tricuspid (right)

29

2 semilunar valves

Pulmonic (right)
Aortic (left)

30

Flow of blood

Superior/inferior vena cava-r atrium-r vent-pulmonary artery-lungs-pulmonary vein-latrium-lvent-aorta-body

31

Systole

Pressure highest In ventricles
Av valves close--lubb
Valves close then SL valves open and ventricles contract- sl valves close-dub

32

Diastole

Ventricles relax--lowest pressure
Atrial pressure high
Av valves open-ventricles fill
Atrial kick

33

Atrial kick

Atria contract and push last amount of blood into ventricles (25% of stroke volume)

34

S3 heart sound

After s2, ventricles resistant to early filling

35

S4 heart sound

Non-compliant ventricles
End of diastole
Before s1

36

Murmur

Gentle blowing/swooshing sound
Graded 1-6

37

Bruits

Sounds heard over carotid arteries
Turbulent flow

38

Pericardial friction rub

Scratchy sound due to inflammation of the pericardium

39

Heart sound characteristics

Frequency, intensity, duration, timing

40

Sinoatrial node

Primary pacemaker of the heart

41

Heart and aging adult

Increased systolic bp, lventricular wall thickens Arteriosclerosis, decreased co with exercise, arrythmias, orthostatic hypotension

42

Cervical lymph nodes

Head and neck

43

Axiallary

Upper arm and breast

44

Epitrochlear lymph nodes

Arm-- hand and lower arm

45

Inguinal nodes

Lower Extremities groin anterior abdomen