List and briefly describe the three general areas of recommendation in the MyPlate plan
- Balance calories—Begin by finding out how many calories you need for a day. Then, enjoy your food, but eat less, and avoid oversized portions.
- Increase some foods—Eat more vegetables, fruits, whole grains and fat-free or 1 percent milk and dairy products. Make these foods the basis for meals and snacks.
- Reduce some foods—Cut back on foods high in solid fats, added sugars, and salt. Enjoy these foods (e.g., cakes, cookies, ice cream, candies, sweetened drinks, pizza, and fatty meats) as occasional treats, not everyday foods. Compare the sodium content of foods and choose those with lower numbers. Drink water instead of sugary drinks.
List two factors that affect your individual need for water each day
Dietary factors Your age Your size Your overall health The temperature and humidity of where you currently are How much you exercise
List two ways to increase your intake of fiber
- Select whole-grain breads low in fat and sugars, with three or more grams of fiber per serving.
- Eat whole, unpeeled fruits and vegetables rather than drinking their juices.
- Substitute whole-grain pastas, bagels, and pizza crust for the refined, white flour versions.
- Add wheat crumbs or grains to meatloaf and burgers.
- Toast grains to bring out their nutty flavor and make foods more appealing.
- Sprinkle ground flax seed on cereals, yogurt, and salads or add it to casseroles, burgers, and baked goods.
Explain the difference between an eating disorder and disordered eating
Disordered eating: Some people channel their anxiety about their weight into self-defeating thoughts and harmful behaviors. These behaviors can include chronic dieting, abuse of diet pills and laxatives, self-induced vomiting, and many others.
Eating disorder: Only some people who exhibit disordered eating patterns progress to a clinical eating disorder. The diagnosis of an eating disorder can be applied only by a physician to a patient who exhibits severe disturbances in thoughts, behavior, and body functioning.
Changing your habits is another key to successful weight management. List two ways to help you change your habits.
- Notice whether you’re hungry before starting a meal.
- Eat slowly, noting when you start to feel full. Stop before you are full.
- Eat breakfast. This will prevent you from being too hungry and overeating at lunch.
- Keep healthful snacks on hand for when you get hungry.
- Don’t constantly deprive yourself or set unrealistic guidelines.
List 4 tips for gaining weight.
- Eat at regularly scheduled times.
- Eat more frequently, spend more time eating, eat high-calorie foods first if you fill up fast, and always start with the main course.
- Take time to shop, to cook, and to eat slowly.
- Put extra spreads (e.g., peanut butter, cream cheese, or cheese) on your foods. Take seconds whenever possible and eat high-calorie, nutrient-dense snacks (e.g., nuts and cheese) during the day.
- Supplement your diet. Add high-calorie drinks that have a healthy balance of nutrients (e.g., whole milk).
- Avoid diuretics, laxatives, and other medications that cause you to lose body fluids and nutrients.
- Relax. Many people who are underweight operate in high gear most of the time. Slow down, get more rest, and take steps to control stress and anxiety.
List three of the six tips for staying with and adjusting your fitness program over time.
- Start slow.
- Make only one lifestyle change at a time.
- Set reasonable expectations for yourself and your physical fitness program.
- Choose a specific time to exercise and stick with it.
- Keep a record of your progress.
- Take lapses in stride.
List and explain each of the four parts of the FITT principle.
- Exercise frequency refers to the number of times per week you need to engage in particular exercises to achieve the desired level of physical fitness in a particular component.
- Intensity refers to how hard your workout must be to achieve the desired level of physical fitness.
- How much time, or the duration, refers to how many minutes or repetitions of an exercise are required at a specified intensity during any one session to attain the desired level of physical fitness for each component.
- Type refers to what kind of exercises should be performed to improve the various components of physical fitness
What steps can be taken to minimize the risk of overuse and traumatic injuries?
- Using common sense.
- Identifying and using only the proper gear and equipment.
- Varying your physical activities throughout the week.
- Setting appropriate and realistic short- and long-term goals.
- Listening to your body when working out. Warning signs include muscle stiffness and soreness, bone and joint pains, and whole-body fatigue that simply does not go away.
Name and briefly describe the four classifications of cancer. Provide an example of each
- Carcinomas occur in the epithelial tissue and metastasize through the circulatory or lymphatic system. Solid tumor.
- Sarcomas occur in the mesodermal (middle) layer of tissue and metastasize mainly through the blood. Solid tumor. More rare (bones, muscle, and general connective tissue).
- Lymphomas occur in the infection-fighting regions of the body (lymph) and metastasize through the lymphatic system. Solid tumor. (Hodgkin’s disease)
- Leukemia occurs in the blood-forming parts of the body (bone marrow and spleen) and is characterized by an abnormal increase in the white blood cells. Nonsolid tumor. (bone marrow and spleen)
What is the primary difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes?
Answer: Type 1, also known as juvenile diabetes, is a genetic autoimmune disorder in which the body’s immune system attacks healthy, insulin-making cells of the pancreas. This results in a rapid decrease in insulin production. Type 2 diabetes develops slowly over time and is related both to genetic and behavioral factors. Over time, cells become resistant to the effects of insulin, though production of insulin is at sufficient levels. A person with type 1 diabetes must take insulin injections. A person with type 2 may take oral medications to increase sensitivity or in some cases take additional insulin.