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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (166):
1

Types of Differential Stress

1. Compressional 2. Tensional 3. Shear

2

Elastic Deformation

Reversible change

3

Ductile Deformation

Irreversible change

4

Fracture

Breaking

5

Yield strength / elastic limit

Stress at which deformation becomes permanent

6

What is the bonding b/w O and Si in the Si-O tetrahedral in Quartz?

Covalent

7

Ductile substance

changes shape

8

Rocks are easier to melt when __

wet

9

Ductile deformation also known as:

folding

10

Metamorphic rock that has begun to melt?

Migmatite

11

Folding happens at:

1. Subduction zones 2. Collision zones

12

Brittle Deformation also known as

Faulting

13

Creep

Stress released continuously

14

Faulting - wall that stays above

Footwall

15

Faulting - wall that sinks

Hanging wall

16

Types of Faulting

1. Normal 2. Reverse/Thrust 3. Strike-slip/Transform

17

Regional Extension

Type of faulting with Horsts and Grabens

18

Horst

Footwall in regional extension (above)

19

Graben

Rift valley in regional extension

20

Normal faulting happens due to

Stretching

21

Reverse/Thrust faulting happens due to

Compression

22

Thrust faulting

Shallow angle

23

Reverse faulting

Steep angle

24

Normal faulting happens at:

Divergent boundaries

25

Reverse/thrust happens at:

Convergent boundaries

26

"Stick slip" motion

Locked faulting builds pressure

27

Liquifaction happens in ________

Siliciclastic areas

28

Focus of earthquake

Where fault ruptures

29

Epicenter

Point directly above focus (on surface)

30

P-Wave

Primary wave (Pressure waves)

31

S-Wave

Shear wave (Secondary waves)

32

Surface waves are the _______ to arrive and cause the ____ damage

Last to arrive. Most

33

____ waves are analogous to sound waves

P-

34

Need ___ seismic readings to find epicenter

3

35

Richter scale

Logarithmic: 1-9

36

Cratons

Stable interiors that have not collided w/ other plates for past 1 B years

37

Ororgenic belts aka

Mountain belts

38

Fans aka

Clastic wedges

39

Indian plate movement

15cm / yr

40

New Madrid Fault

Ancient fault system, altered Mississippi river

41

Himalayas have _______ despite continental collision setting

Deep quakes

42

Obduction

Slivers of oceanic sediments get uplifted during subduction --> Ophiolites

43

Subduction evidence?

Andesite, intruded batholiths

44

Young oceanic crust

- hot - high - thin - buoyant

45

Old oceanic crust

- cold - low - thick - not buoyant

46

Cause of Appalachians

Collision of Gondwana and Laurussia = PANGEA

47

Appalachians stay high b/c _____

have deep root

48

Names of Indian ocean fans

Bengal, Nicobar

49

William "Strata" Smith

- Land surveyor - Noticed earth layering - Made first geological maps

50

First Geologists

James Hutton & Charles Lyell

51

Principles of Geology (Hutton & Lyell)

- Strata originally horizontal - Principles of superposition - Cross cutting relations

52

Principle of Superpositiion

Young-top, Old-bottom

53

Cross Cutting Relations

Rock that cuts across another is younger

54

Uncomformity

Erosional surface where part of rock record is missing

55

Angular uncomformity

Tilted sediment, covered by flat sediment

56

Granite Formation b/w

Archean & Proterozoic

 

 

A image thumb
57

Granite formation happened ____ BYA

2.5

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58

Earliest life ___ BYA

3.6

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59

Cambrian explosion b/w

Proterozoic & Paleozoic

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60

Cambrian explosion happened ____ MYA

542

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61

First mass extinction b/w

Paleozoic & Mesozoic

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62

1st mass extinction happened ____ MYA

250

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63

____% of species extinct in first mass extinction

90-96

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64

2nd Mass Extinction happened b/w

Mesozoic & Cenozoic

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65

2nd Mass Extinction happened ____ MYA

66

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66

Cambrian Explosion top critters

- Trilobytes - Brachiopods - Cephalopods

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67

Top predator during Cambrian explosion (Paleozoic)

Cephalopods

68

Eurypterids develop during

Ordovician Period

69

Vertebrates develop (bony fish) during

Silurian Period

70

1st Arthropods develop during

Silurian Period

A image thumb
71

"Age of fishes"

Devonian period

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72

First reptiles during

Carboniferous period

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73

Development of jaws in fish / sharks

Devonian period

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74

Vertebrates come onto land (amphibians) during

Devonian period

A image thumb
75

1st plants (tiny twigs) during

Silurian period

A image thumb
76

Forests develop by end of

Devonian period

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77

Rotting vegetation during

Carboniferous period

A image thumb
78

First mammalian ancestor develops during

Permian period

A image thumb
79

Copious coal deposits during

Carboniferous period

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80

First mass extinction at end of

Permian period

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81

End of Paleozoic during ____ period

Permian

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82

First air breathing terrestrial vertebrates during

Carboniferous

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83

Trilobites die during

First mass extinction

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84

Mesozoic era starts with ____ period

Triassic

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85

Lots of forests (cycads) during

Jurassic period

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86

Huge crocodiles during

Cretaceous period

A image thumb
87

First birds during

Triassic period

A image thumb
88

First dinosaurs during

Triassic period

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89

First cycads (related to pine trees) during

Triassic period

A image thumb
90

First mammals during

Triassic period

A image thumb
91

Flowering flora during

Cretaceous period

A image thumb
92

T-Rex during

Cretaceous period

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93

Dinosaur diversity during

Jurassic Period

A image thumb
94

No flowering plants during

Jurassic period

A image thumb
95

Order of periods in Paleozoic

- Cambrian - Ordovician - Silurian - Devonian - Carboniferous - Permian

A image thumb
96

Order of periods in Mesozoic

- Triassic - Jurassic - Cretaceous

A image thumb
97

Climax of dinosaurs during

Cretaceous periods

A image thumb
98

Cephalopods get big during

Cretaceous period

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99

Basalt formed in ___ boundaries

Divergent

100

Granite formed in ___ boundaries

Convergent

101

Contact metamorphism

High temp, Low pressure

102

Regional metamorphism

High temp, High pressure

103

Blueschist

Medium temp, high pressure

104

Contact metamorphism occurs at ____

mid oceanic ridges

105

Blueschist metamorphism occurs at ____

cold subducting oceanic plate

106

Regional metamorphism occurs at ____

Cont-cont collisions

107

Weathering consists of

- Mechanical

- Chemical

- Biological

108

What causes cracking?

Stress release

109

Joints

Cracks in large rock bodies in ground

110

_____ move the most rocks

Glaciers

111

Most abrasion in weathering comes from ____

moving water

112

How to dissolve ionic bonds?

Water

113

How to dissolve covalent bonds?

Carbonic acid

114

Mineral weathering (fastest to slowest)

- Olivine

- Pyroxene

- Amphibole

- Biotite

- K-Feldspar

- Muscovite

- Quartz

115

Modes of Sedimentary origin

- Clastic/detrital

- Biochemical/Chemical

- Chemical/Evaporitic

116

Sliciclastic Sed Rocks (Coarse--->Fine)

- Conglomerate

- Sandstone

- Siltstone

- Mudstone

 

117

Sandstone has a lot of ____

quartz

118

Siltstone has ___ and ___

clay, quartz

119

Mudstone is ______

completely clay

120

Burial and Diagenesis

1. Mech. compaction

2. Chem rxn w/ fluids

3. Cementation of grains

121

Diagenesis

Change from one sed. rock to another sed. rock

122

Major producers of Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3)

Coralline Red Algae

123

Calcium Carbonate chemical formula

CaCO3

124

Major minerals in reefs and carbonates

- Calcite

- Aragonites

125

Huge amounts of ____ on sea floor

Calcium Carbonate

126

Live near surface, die --> form sediment

Coccoliths

Foram'

127

Coccolith

Skeleton of plankton

128

Foram'

Zooplankton eating other plankton

129

Chemical Sediments aka

Evaporites

130

Precipitation depends on

1. Concentration of ions

2. Solubility

3. Amount of evaporation

131

Sabka

Salt flat at edge of ocean

132

Restricted basin

Basin with restricted entry (ie Mediterranean basin)

133

_______ needed for ____ salt deposits

Constant refilling of basin, thick

134

Facie

Property of rock that will hint formation

135

______ is found in quiet water

Mudstone

136

_____ is found in rapid water

Conglomerates

137

Good indicator of current speed?

Grain size

138

Facie at shallow depth

Sands

139

Facie at intermediate depth

Silts

140

Facie at deep depths

Limestone

141

Silt facie composed of

Shales, mudstones

142

Major processes of weathering

Dissolution

Mechanical breaking

143

Dissolution

Pulling ions out

144

Mechanical breaking

Cracking, abrasion

145

Karst topography

Results from: Carbonate weathering

146

Sink holes aka

Collapsed caves

147

148

Diagenesis of SANDSTONE

Quartzite

149

Diagenesis of LIMESTONE

Marble

150

Diagenesis of GRANITE

Gneiss

151

Diagenesis of BASALT

Greenstones

152

Diagenesis of SLATE

Phyllite, Schist

153

Differential Stress

Force acting on rock

154

Foliation

Layering of metamorphic rocks

155

Phyllite (shiny/not shiny)

Shiny slate

156

Slate (shiny/not shiny)

Not shiny

157

Porphyroblasts

Mineral formed as a result of metamorphism

158

Minerals appearing ___ in grade are more ____ than those at ____

- early

- durable

- end

159

_____ & _____ weather quickly

Amphibole, Pyroxene

160

_____ facies occur in contact metamorphic zones

Hornfels Facies

161

Grain distribution in contact metamorphism

Uniform

162

Greenschist facies appear in ________

Regional metamorphism

163

Greenschist facies have more _______

banded foliation

164

Dynamic Metamorphism found along ________

fault zones

165

Dynamic metamorphism caused by _____ from ______

Heat from friction

166