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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (64):

List the 3 major types of cytoskeleton proteins

In Eukaryotic cells: microfilaments, intermediate filaments and microtubules


What is meant by the term "extra cellular matrix"?

collection of secreted proteins and carbohydrates found in the extracellular space of all tissues.


Describe the 3 major components of the extracellular matrix?

-Fibrillar proteins: collagens and elastins
-Multiadhesive proteins: fibronectin and laminin
-Hydrophilic proteoglycans: bind water and growth factors


What are the 2 major types of ECM?

-Basal Lamina: separates different tissues
-Stromal ECM: between cells within a tissue


Where are the 2 major types of ECM located?

-Basal Lamina: separates different tissues
-Stromal ECM: between cells within a tissue


Describe what is meant by the term "basal lamina" and describe what it is composed of.

Separates many tissues and often times provides orientational cues.

Example the epithelial sheet which is composed of (from top to bottome) lumen, basal lamina then connective tissue


Describe what is meant by the term "cytoskeleton"?

-Present in all cells providing structure and support.
-Acts as an intracellular 'highway system'
-Participates in cell locomotion


Provide an example of how two types of connective tissue can have very different structures and functions

-Cartilage= composed of chondrocyte cells, type II collagen, rich in proteoglycans, resists compression due to high water content

-Tendons= fibrous connective tissue connecting muscle to bone, provide tensile strength, type I collagen


Describe at least 3 functions of the cytoskeleton

-provide transport pathway for intracellular molecules
-cellular locomotion
-help provide cell shape
-anchor organelles in place


Describe what a tight junction is and where it might be found

-seal cells together into sheets, forming an impermeable barrier

-found in intestinal epithelium


Describe what a gap junction is and where it might be found

-primary communication junction, protein channel for small molecules to pass. Cell exchange of electromchemical signals

-found in heart tissue and some neuronal structures


Describe what is meant by the term "cell cycle" and provide a diagram that shows its various phases and what happens in them

-Series of phases leading to the division of a cell into 2 identical daughter cells

-Interphase (G2), Prophase, Prometaphase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase


Provide a diagram of mitosis and list 3 reasons why it is a significant process in human health

-slide 38 week 5 Cell Cycle
-circle cycle of Prophase -> Metaphase->Anaphase->Telophase ->G1, S, G2

-understand development and growth, wound healing, cell replacement, regeneration-neurogenesis-olfactory neuron replacement


What happens in Interphase (G2) and what order phase is this? (1-6)

1st phase, centrosomes with centriole pairs, nuclear envelope with nucleolus, chromatin duplicated

-cell growth and DNA duplicates


What happens in Prophase and what order phase is this? (1-6)

2nd phase, early mitotic spindle, centrosome pairs move to ends are asters, centromere = chromosome consisting of 2 sister chromatids

-condensation of chromatin, nucleolus disappears


What happens in Prometaphase and what order phase is this? (1-6)

3rd phase, nuclear envelope disintegrates, asters moved to opposite ends, kinetochore microtubles attach to kinetochore


What happens in Metaphase and what order phase is this? (1-6)

4th phase, chromosomes moved to metaphase plate,


What happens in Anaphase and what order phase is this? (1-6)

5th phase, chromosomes pulled towards poles


What happens inTelophase and what order phase is this? (1-6)

6th last phase, nuclear membrane reforms


What are the 3 major communication systems of the human body?

Nervous, immune and endocrine systems


List 6 steps that are common to all extracellular signaling communication systems

1. Synthesis of signal molecule (ligand) 2. release of signal molecule by signal cell 3. transport of signal to target cell 4. binding of signal molecule to specific receptor 5. ligand binding or signal tranduction 6. removal/termination of signal


What is meant by "signaling molecules operate over varying distances"? Provide 2 examples

-Direct Haptic (touch)-mediated signaling= to cells that they are in direct contact with

-Soluble signaling= to itself, nearby cells, cells in a different tissue or organ


What is meant by a ligand/receptor interaction?

ligand is a small molecule that binds to specific molecules on or within a cell called a receptor


Describe 2 types of cellular receptors and how they are different in terms of their role as effectors.

-ligand gated ion channel
-G protein coupled receptor = activates or inhibits enzymes


Describe agonist and antagonist

(week 6 slide 17)

-agonist drug= effective active site of similar shape to ligand, binds to receptor

-antagonist= no effect, close in shape to active site, blocks receptor, prevents binding


Describe the 2 arms of the nervous system

-Central= brain and spinal chord
-Peripheral= everything else


Describe the common structures found in a neuron

-Dendrite= input received
-Cell body= multiple inputs integrated together
-Axon= carries signal to target
-Axon terminal= output to next neuron


Provide a diagram of a typical neuron-neuron synapse

Slide 26 know basics = axon terminal, vesicles...


What is meant by the term "immune system"

system of organs, glands, cells and molecules that protects against disease and aids in wound healing


Describe what is meant by the term “Tissue” and list the four major tissue types.

Tissues are collections of similar cell types. 4 Major tissues are connective, epithelial, muscle and nervous


What is meant by the term “organ”? and provide an example of one by listing some of its components.

Organ= is a collection of tissues. Ex stomach has smooth muscle, loose connective, nervous, blood and columnar epithelium tissues.


Explain what is meant by the term “cell culture” and “cell culture media”.

Cell culture= maintenance and growth of cells outside of organism.
Cell culture media = a kit that supports cell growth. Flasks with the liquid phase used in cell culture to support growth of cells. Has nutrients, is balanced, sterile.


Describe the general method for isolating cells for cell culture.

Week 5 slide 13 Obtain cells from source (adult, embryo or newborn) -> dissection -> enzyme dissection, finely chopped or further dissection.


Explain how the life cycle of somatic cells differs from that of immortalized cell lines.

Somatic=limited life span in culture, senescence deterioration with age
Immortalized=can divide indefinitely, have mutation oncogenic transformation.


List 5 ways a prokaryote differs from a eukaryotic cell

Prok= has cell wall, outer membrane; periplasmic space, no organelles or microtubules.
Euk= single cell membrane, organelles, microtubules.


Describe how one would identify the endoplasmic reticulum and what functions it carries out

-Resembles maze or compact with layers, like a folded sheet, near nucleus.
-Rough ER = has ribosomes, protein secretion and replenishment of membrane proteins.
-Smooth ER= no ribosomes, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism-lipids for membranes.


Describe the golgi apparatus and what functions it carries out

-Away from nucleus, interconnected network of membranous spaces that is associated w ER.
-Involved in secretion of proteins, and integration of proteins in plasma membrane.


***Describe how you could determine if a protein was capable of laterally diffusing in the plasma membrane of a cell.

Use FRAP = label protein, then bleach a spot of it and monitor its recovery.


What is meant by the term “endomembraneous system”.

-ER and Golgi involved in building and maintaining it.
-composed of the different membranes that are suspended in the cytoplasm,divide the cell into functional and structural compartments, or organelles.


Describe what is meant by the term “lysosome”

-recycles worn cells, cleaner
-acidic organelle w degrading enzymes


Describe three cellular pathways that utilize lysosomes

-endocytosis=cells internalize molecules by engulfing them
-phagocytosis= cells bind and internalize particulate matter
-autophagy= destruction and removal of unnecessary or damaged organelles inside cell


What is meant by the term “immortalized cell line”

population of cells from a multicellular organism which would normally not proliferate indefinitely but, due to mutation, have evaded normal cellular senescence and instead can keep undergoing division. The cells can therefore be grown for prolonged periods in vitro.


What is the complement system?

-system of small molecules that aids the innate immune system. 1) identify pathogens 2) direct killing of pathogens 3) recruitment of inflammatory cells


What are the major components of the innate immune system?

-physical barriers such as skin and mucous membranes –proteins in the blood called complement -phagocytic cells including white blood cells and tissue macrophages


Draw a schematic of an antibody and label its parts.

-Slide 29. -Y shape, antigen-binding sites, variable region, constant region, hinge region


Provide a diagram that shows you understand the concept of homeostatic regulation

-Slide 5 Negative feedback diagram. -Variable (imbalance), stimulus, receptor, control center, effector


What is a hormone?

-chemical messenger of the endocrine system -usually peptide or steroid based -soluble signal released in bloodstream


What is meant by the islets of Langerhans?

-hormone producing part of pancreas -discrete collection of cells that secrete hormones -about 1 million islets in adult -Alpha cells= glucagon -beta cells= insulin


****Provide a diagram showing the reciprocal role of insulin and glucagon in regulating glucose homeostasis.

-Slide 20 – Fed state= inc. blood glucose -> inc. insulin secretion -> inc glucose uptake in fat and muscle cells; inc glycogen synthesis in liver and muscle; dec glucose synthesis in liver -> dec blood glucose. -Starved State= dec blood glucose -> inc glucagon secretion -> inc glycogen breakdown in liver; inc glucose production in liver, dec insulin secretion -> inc blood glucose


Compare and contrast Type I and Type II diabetes

-Type I= insulin insufficiency, autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta cells, patients usually low in weight poor uptake of glucose
-Type II= insulin resistance, associate w obesity


Describe how diabetes is treated?

-Type I= insulin therapy, organ/cell transplantation
-Type II= diet/exercise, anti-diabetic drugs, insulin therapy


**** List the four major activities of the human digestive system and describe what they involve.

-Motility = movements of the GI tract that mix contents and propel them along its length. -Secretion = glands release water and enzymes into the GI tract. -Digestion = mechanical, enzymatic and hydrolytic breakdown of ingested biopolymers. -Absorption = processes whereby nutrient monomers leave the GI tract and enter the blood stream


Describe the general organization of the human digestive tract and briefly describe what each part does.

-Oral=mouth, tongue, teeth -Pharynx= muscular propulsion into esophagus -Esophagus= transport to stomach -Stomach= chemical breakdown w acid/enzymes, mech processing through musc contractions -Small Intestine= enzymatic digestion and absorption -Large Intestine= dehydration and compaction


What are the four major glandular organs associated with the human digestive system?

-Salivary glands, liver, gall bladder, pancreas


What are the 6 major classes of nutrients?

Macronutrients = carbs, protein, fats, water
Micro = minerals, vitamins


Describe the general organization of the layers of the GI tract. In your answer include the four layers.

-Slide 17 –(Outside in) Serosa= connective tissue layer – Muscularis Propria= inner layer circular muscle fibers, outer layer longitudinal muscle fibers -Submucosa= blood, lymphoid vessels -Mucosa= epithelial, lymphoid rich layers and longitudinal muscle fibers


What is meant by the term “peristalsis” and provide a simple diagram that shows how it works.

-Slide 21 -propels materials along the length of digestive tract -Contraction of circular muscles behind food mass, contraction longitudinal muscles ahead of mass, contraction circular muscles behind force mass forward


Where does the bulk of nutrient absorption occur and how is this part of the GI tract organized to facilitate this function?

-small intestine -continues to digest (break down) food= protein, carbs, fat -absorbs nutrients= villus


Define what is meant by the term Metabolism and explain why we need oxygen.

-all chemical rxns that break down nutrients to provide energy and monomers for synthesis to repair cells as needed for homeostasis


What is meant by the term “cellular respiration” and where does it take place in the typical somatic cell?

-oxidation of glucose. Cells extract energy from carbs, fats or proteins. -occurs in cytoplasm and mitochondria


ATP is called the power currency of the cell. Provide four different examples of how ATP is used by living cells.

-biosynthesis, chemical activation, membrane transport, cytoplasmic transport, cell motility/contraction


Describe the organization of the respiratory airways. How do the conducting airways differ from the respiratory portion?

-Conducting -> Respiratory ->Bronchioles ->Alveoli= site of gas exchange.
-Conducting= reinforced w cartilage, ciliated epithelial covering, stiff. Makes up residual volume=larynx, trachea, bronchus
-Respiratory= stretchable, makes up vital capacity. =bronchioles, alveoli sacs.


Draw a diagram that shows the whole process of CO2 exchange from cells of bodily tissues to the alveolus in the lung.

-Slide 11 -CO2 turned into H2CO3 and HCO3- for transport, then turned back into CO2 at lungs


How does hemoglobin function to transport oxygen. In your answer describe its structure and draw a graph to show the relationship between Oxygen saturation and PO2 (mmHg).

-Slide 10 -Hemo structure tetramer of 4 globin molecules – one heme molecule per globin -globin molecules allow iron atom to bind O2 and release w out being oxidized.
-Release O2 75% Hem Saturation/40 PO2 Resting Cell, Bind O2 98% Hem Sat/100 PO2 Alveoli