Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (202):
CAI, used to treat udder edema. Administed orally. Rapid onset and short duration. Eliminated by kidneys
Acute Hypocalcemia Clinical Signs
Clinical signs can include hyperesthesia/pawing at face, tremors progressing to flaccid paralysis, seizures, hyperthermia, bradycardia.
Stimulates the reabsorption of water in the distal tubules and collecting ducts. This results in increased water in ECF and decreased ECF osmolality. Administered IM or IV over 1 hour in lactated Ringer’s or 5% dextrose.
Adverse Effects - Glucocorticoids
PU/PD, Catabolic, antagonize insulin, "stress" leukogram, impair healing, caclinosis cutis, osteoporosis, risk of ulcers (caution with NSAIDs)
Adverse Effects - ACE Inhibitors
Hypotension, may lower intraglomerular pressure decreasing GFR in animals with systemic hypertension and azotemia
Adverse Effects - Calcium Channel Blockers
Bradycardia and AV block, Hypotension, GIT side effects, Elevated liver enzymes (temporary)
Adverse Effects - Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors
Acidosis, hypokalemia, hyperglycemia, vomit diarrhea, hyperventilation, PU/PD, behavioral changes, pruritus of paws.
Adverse Effects - Loop or High Ceiling Diuretics
Ototoxicity, Hypokalemia, Hypomagnesemia, Acute hypovolemia, Hypotension, Cardiac arrhythmias, Hyperglycemia, Hyperuricemia, Systemic alkalosis. Hypersensitivity reactions in patients allergic to sulfonamides
Adverse Effects - Thiazide Diuretics
Electrolyte imbalance, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, Hypersensitivity reactions in patients allergic to sulfonamides.
Calcium channel blocker that is recommended as the first-line antihypertensive in cats unless the cause is hyperthyroidism, in this case a B-blocker is used.
A potent vasoconstrictor, stimulates aldosterone secretion, Inhibits renin release
ACE Inhibitors, Treats chronic renal insufficiency in cats. Available orally. Long acting and administered once daily. Activated in the liver. Least likely to require dosage modification in renal failure patients because of significant excretion in bile (50%).
PG agonists that increase uveoscleral outflow by stimulating FP receptors in the eye. Used topically on the eye in the treatment of openangle glaucoma or ocular hypertension
Class III (Potassium Channel Blocker). Refractory and recurrent tachyarrhythmias.
Inability of the body to convert Vitamin D to the active form calcitriol leads to hypoparathyroidism. Is the most potent activated form of vitamin D. Most rapid.
Oral calcium. Is Caustic NEVER given SQ/IM. More likely to cause GI irritation. If given parenterally it must be IV
Should be giving SQ (IV is better). Small amount of calcium so not good for dosing large patients.
Used in catte as a food supplement
Increases from PTH and calcitriol and decreases from calcitonin
ACE Inhibitors, Food reduces intestinal absorption. Faster onset and shorter duration than enalapril in the dog. May cause idiosyncratic glomerular disease in some dogs. Has more GI side effects than enalapril. May cause neutropenia, proteinuria and skin rash in some humans.
Converted in the body to methimazole.
Nonselective beta blocker and alpha1 blocker. Inhibits endothelin release. Used to treat CHF.
Central diabetes insipidus (CDI)
Caused by ADH deficiency
An oral hypoglycemic sulfonylurea drug. Requires the presence of some endogenous ADH to act. Is not very effective for treatment of CDI in dogs and cats.
H2 Antagonist; Immunomodulatory effects including inhibiting suppressor T cells and enhancing cell‐mediated immunity. Is used in the treatment of equine melanoma (as immunomodulator)
Serotonin (5HT) Agonists; 5HT4 receptor agonist in enteric neurons. Prokinetc.
Classification - Antiarrhythmic drugs for Tachyarrhythmias - Class I
Sodium channel blockers (local anesthetics - membrane stabilizers)
Classification - Antiarrhythmic drugs for Tachyarrhythmias - Class II
Classification - Antiarrhythmic drugs for Tachyarrhythmias - Class III
Potassium channel blockers - prolong action potential duration
Classification - Antiarrhythmic drugs for Tachyarrhythmias - Class IV
Ca 2+ channel blockers
Classification - Arrhythmias
Defined as abnormalities in heart rate and rhythm (any rhythm that is not normal sinus rhythm)
Classification - Diuretics
Diuretics are drugs that increase the rate of urine flow. They also increase the rate of sodium excretion usually as sodium chloride.
Concentration of Insulin
Human approved are 100 IU/mL and Veterinary formulas are 40 IU/mL. Must use appropriate syringe.
Contraindications - Glucocorticoids
Diabetes mellitus - Opposes the effects of insulin. Catabolic disease - Overall catabolic effect. Infections - Immunosuppression. Corneal ulceration/wounds - Wound healing is slowed. Young animals - Slowed growth; immunosuppression. Pregnancy - Teratogenic. Concurrent use with NSAIDs - Greatly increased risk of GI ulcers.
Serotonin Antagonists; Blocks H1‐receptors, blocks serotonin receptors, inhibition of serotonin inhibits ACTH. Used as an antihistamine, to stimulate appetite in small animals, in the treatment of “serotonin syndrome” in dogs and cats.
Desmopressin, DDAVP (1-desamino-8-D arginine vasopressin)
synthetic ADH analog. Longer duration of action than natural ADH. Given parenterally (SC, IM or IV) and the nasal drops.
Long Acting Insulin, Given SC only. Has much higher potency in dogs (4x), requires special dosing and may be difficult to dose for small dogs
Dextrose 50% solution
Mucosal absorption is decent - owners can give Karo syrup or similar sugary substance on the gums. Generally do not give dextrose SQ (risk of tissue irritation). Intravenous bolus of dextrose can be used in an emergency. Dilute 1:4. Ongoing IV dextrose - NO MORE than 5% concentration.
The primary goal of therapy is to address the insulin deficiency, not to "bring down the blood glucose"
Digitalis glycoside, inhibition of Na/K ATPase which results in increase in intracellular Ca. Positive inotrope and negative chronotrope. Administered orally or given slow IV in emergency. Small amount is metabolized in the liver. Undergoes eneterohepatic recycling. Excretion is mainly renal in dogs and horses BUT renal and hepatic in cats. Treats CHF and atrial arrhythmias in dogs. Narrow safety margin. Adverse effects: cardiac related.
H1 Antagonist; Used as an antiemetic, antitussive and sedative
A mineralocorticoid. Given parenterally (IM, SC) q 25 days or longer.
Dorzolamide and Brinzolamide
CAIs, administered topically on the eye.
Drugs - ACE Inhibitors
Captopril, Enalapril, Lisinopril, and Benazepril
Drugs - Angiotensin II Antagonist
Drugs - Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonist
Drugs - Beta and Alpha1 Blockers
Sympatholytic Vasodilators - Carvedilol
Drugs - Beta Blockers
Carvedilol, Atenolol, and Propranolol
Drugs - Calcium Channel Blockers
Verapamil, Diltiazem, Amlodipine, and Nitedipine
Drugs - Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors (CAIs)
Acetazolamide, Methazolamide, Dorzolamide and Brinzolamide
Drugs - Cardiac Stimulants
B1 Agonists (Dopamine, Dobutamine, Isoproterenol, Epinephrine, and Norepinephrine); Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors; Glucagon and Calcium Salts
Drugs - Cardiovascular Diuretics
Digitalis (Digoxin) and Phosphodisterase Inhibitors (Aminophylline, Inamrinone, and Milrinone)
Drugs - Central DI
Desmopressin, DDVAP, Thiazide diuretics or Chloropropamide
Drugs - Class IA Tachyarrythmic Antiarrhythmic
Quinidine, Procainamide, Disopyramine
Drugs - Class IB Tachyarrhythmic Antiarrhythmic
Lidocaine, Phenytoin, Tocainide, Mexiletine, Aprinidine
Drugs - Class IC Tachyarrhythmic Antiarrhythmic
Flecainide, Ecainide, and Lorcainide
Drugs - Class II Tachyarrhythmic Antiarrhythmic
Propranolol, Timolol, Pindolol, Oxyprenolol, Alprenolol, Atenolol, Esmolol, Metoprolol (your Beta Blockers)
Drugs - Class IV Tachyarrythmic Antiarrhythmic
Veraparmil and Diltiazem
Drugs - Direct Acting Vasodilators
Hydralazine and Nitrates (Sodium Nitroprusside, Nitroglycerin, and Isosorbide dinitrate)
Drugs - Direct and indirect Sympathomimetics
Vasoconstrict - Ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, phenylpropanolamine (PPA)
Drugs - Glucocorticoids
Prednisone/prednisolone, Dexamethasone, Triamcinolone, Methylprednisolone, Fluticasone.
Drugs - H1 Antagonists - First generation
Pyrilamine, diphenhydramine, dimenydrinate, chlorpheniramine, meclizine, promethazine, trimeprazine, cyproheptadine
Drugs - H1 Antagonists - Second generation
Ketotifen and Piperidines (Terfenadine, Astemizole, Loratadine, and Fexofenadine)
Drugs - H2 Antagonists
Cimetidine, Ranitidine, Famotidine, and Nizatidine
Drugs - Indirect Sympatholytics
Sympatholytic Vasodilators - Bretylium
Drugs - Inhibit histamine release
Cromolyn sodium, catecholamines, phosphodiesterase inhibitors glucocorticoids
Drugs - Inodilators
Pimobendan, Inamrinone, and Milrinone
Drugs - Janus Kinase Inhibitor
Drugs - Leukotriene Inhibitors
Zafirlukast and Zileuton
Drugs - Loop or High Ceiling Diuretics
Furosemid, Bumentadine, and Ethacrynic acid
Drugs - Mineralocorticoids
Drugs - Nephrogenic DI
Thiazide diuretics or Chloropropamide
Drugs - Neurokinins Antagonist
Drugs - Nonselective Alpha Agonists
Vasoconstrict - Epinephrine and norepinephrine
Drugs - Nonselective Alpha Blockers
Sympatholytic Vasodilators - Phentolamine, phenoxybenzamine
Drugs - Nonselective Beta Blocker
Sympatholytic Vasodilators - Propranolol
Drugs - Osmotic Diuretics
Mannitol, Urea, Glycerin, and Isosorbide
Drugs - Positive Inotropic
Digitalis glycoside (Digitoxin, Digoxin and ouabain) and B1 agonists
Drugs - Potassium Sparing Diuretics
Spironolactone, Triamterene and Amiloride
Drugs - Presynaptic Alpha2 Agonist
Sympatholytic Vasodilators - Clonidine
Drugs - Prostaglandin Inhibitors
Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors (NSAIDs) and Phospholipase A2 Inhibitors (Corticosteroids - also inhibit COX-2)
Drugs - Prostaglandins
Misoprostol, Dinoprost tromethamine, Cloprostenol, Fenprostalene, Fluprostenol, Latanoprost, Travoprost, and Bimatoprost
Drugs - Selective Alpha 1 Agonist
Vasoconstrict - Phenylephrine
Drugs - Selective Alpha1 Blockers
Sympatholytic Vasodilators - Prazosin, terazosin, doxazosin
Drugs - Selective Beta1 Blockers
Sympatholytic Vasodilators - Atenolol
Drugs - Serotonin Agonist
Cisapride and Fluoxetine
Drugs - Serotonin Antagonist
Cyproheptadine, Ondansetron (Zofran), Metoclopramide, Mirtazapine
Drugs - Thiazide Diuretics
Hydrochlorothiazide and Chlorothiazide
Drugs - Vasoconstrictors
Nonselective Alpha Agonists, Selective Alpha 1 Agonist, and Direct and indirect Sympathomimetics
Drugs - Vasodilators
Sympatholytic drugs, ACE inhibitors, Angiotensin II antagonists, Direct-acting vasodilators, Ca channel blockers. Hydralazine, Nitrates (Sodium nitroprusside, nitroglycerin, isosorbide) and Prazosin
Drugs - Antihypertensive
Diuretics, Beta blockers, Vasodilators and Calcium channel blockers
Drugs that could interefere with thyroid tests results
Phenobarbital, zonisamide, sulfonamides, glucocorticoids, phenylbutazone, quinidine. Should measure about 4 weeks after starting therapy.
Dugs - Class III Tachyarrhythmic Antiarrhythmic
Bretylium, Amiodarone, Sotalol
ACE Inhibitors, Available orally and parenterally. Has a slow onset and long duration in the dog. Activated in the liver.
A mineralocorticoid. Given orally BID. NOT FLUTICASONE!!
Serotonin Agonists; Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRRI) antidepressant. Increases serotonin levels in the brain. Treatment of canine separation anxiety in dogs and cats to treat other behavioral disorders. Treats cats with inappropriate elimination and urine marking. Side effects: Nausea, anorexia, anxiety, irritability, and sleeping disturbances
A prostaglandin causes luteolysis, stimulate motility of the smooth muscles of the reproductive tract
Loop/High Ceiling Diuretic. Used for treatment of exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage in horses. Administered orally and IV. Rapid action and short duration.
Long Acting Insulin, Given SC only. Forms microprecipitates in physiologic pH which results in very gradual absorption (‘flat’ curve)
Oral hypoglycemic agent. The only clinically relevant ones used in veterinary medicine at this time are sulfonylurea drugs. Only effective in ~20-30% of cats. Can cause significant hypoglycemia, so glucose must be monitored as it is with insulin therapy. May accelerate beta cell loss.
Not commonly used. IV injection (dosed in nanograms)
Cortisol is the endogenous hormone. Regulated by the hypothalamus/pituitary through release of CRH and ACTH. Use for anti-inflammator effects. Well absorbed orally or parenterally. Protein bound by transcortin or albumin. Metabolites excreted in urine.
Glycerin and Isosorbide
H3 Mediated Effect
Inhibiting release of histamine, serotonin,
norepinephrine and acetylcholine
Absorbed orally. 1st generation: sedating and cross BBB 2nd generation: non-sedating and does not cross BBB. Metabolized by the liver and excreted in urine. Most are enzyme inducers.
Present in many tissues especially the lung, skin, GI, mucosa and the CNS (hypothalamus). Mainly stored in mast cells and basophils
How much serum calcium is bound to plasma protein?
50%, only unbound calcium is active
Arteriolar vasodilator. Increasing local concentrations of PGI2. May be by inhibiting calcium influx into smooth muscles of arteries
Hydrochlorothiazide and Chlorothiazide
Administered orally, absorption is slow, bind to plasma protein, decreased RBF decreases effectiveness
Too little insulin
Too much Insulin
Inhibition of renin secretion
Angiotensin II, ADH, Hypertension, Increased reabsorption of sodium, B1-adrenergic blockers
Insoluble esters (pivalate, acetate, acetonide)
Used for glucocorticoids as an injectable excipient. The less soluble the ester the longer it will take to absorb (delayed onset, long duration) - "depot". Opaque suspension - NOT for IV use!!
Regular, NPH, Vetsulin, PZI, Glargine, Detemir. Produced by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhands in endocrine pancreas.
Iodides and Iodinated contrast agents
Inhibit thyroid hormone synthesis, inhibit release of preformed hormone, inhibit T3>T4 conversion in periphery (contrast agents). Efficacy is variable and often transient.
H1 Antagonist; Available as ophthalmic for treatment of allergic conjunctivitis, and orally as adjunctive for prevention of asthma
T4 replacement for hypothyroidism in dogs. Requires less frequent dosing and has lower risk of causing thyrotoxicosis (excessive T4 levels than liothyronine. Typically dose in mg/kg. Reduce risk of oversupplementation in large patients (>50lb) by dosing mg/m2 instead. Given orally BID (sometimes SID - half-life is variable). Injectably only used for rare situations like myxedema coma. Must be given for the rest of the patient's life.
Class IB. The intravenous drug of choice for ventricular arrhythmias due to general anesthetics, surgery, ischemia, and trauma. Digitalis-induced arrhythmias.
Calcitriol, DHT (dihydrotachysterol), ergocalciferol
T3 hormone replacement
ACE Inhibitors, long acting and administered once daily.
Angiotensin II antagonists. Competitive antagonist of angiotensin II receptors. Clinical use - antihypertensive.
Major H1 Mediated Effects
Contraction of smooth muscles, vasodilation stimulate exocrine secretion, postive inotropic effect, CNS stimulation and inhibition of appetite
Major H2 Mediated Effect
Gastric acid secretion and positive inotropic effect and increased heart rate
An osmotic diuretic. administered IV. Not metabolized and eliminated rapidly by the kidneys.
Neurokinins Antagonists; Blocks neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptors preventing substance P from binding resulting in antiemetic effect. Used only in dogs (over 16 weeks of age) as tablets or injection for the prevention of acute vomiting due to motion sickness and may be effective in treating vomiting due to viral infections and anticancer chemotherapy.
Inhibits hormone synthesis. Consistently efficacious. Side effects uncommon and most are manageable. Tapazole (humans), Felimazole (cats), Transdermal methimazole. Used to treat hyperthyroidism in cats.
Serotonin Antagonists; 5HT3 receptor antagonist and D1 and D2 receptor antagonist. Antiemetic and prokinetic
Mild/Common Side Effects of Methimazole
GI signs (vomiting), transient hematologic changes on CBC
Produced by the zona glomerulosa. Aldostertone is the endogenous hormone. Regulate Na retention/ K excretion.
Serotonin Antagonists; Enhances noradrenergic and serotonergic activity. A potent antagonist of 5HT2 and 5HT3 receptors. Antidepressant and antiemetic
A synthetic prostaglandin E1 that causes GI cytoprotection and decreases acid secretion. Given orally as anti‐ulcer drug
MOA - ACE Inhibitors
Inhibition of: angiotensin-converting enzyme (kininase), angiotensin II synthesis and aldosterone.
MOA - Calcium Channel Blockers
Inhibit the influx of extracellular calcium which inhibits myocardial contraction and results in vasodilation. Results in negative inotropic effect and negative chronotropic effect.
MOA - Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors
Reversible inhibition of carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibits the exchange of H for Na in PCT. Lower intraocular pressure.
MOA - Glucocorticoids - Genomic Effects
Nuclear type GCRs in the cytoplasm - after binding move into the nucleus to increase or decrease gene expression.
MOA - Glucocorticoids - Non-genomic Effects
Glucocorticoid receptors in the membrane - rapid effects
MOA - Loop or High Ceiling Diuretics
Inhibit Na/K/2Cl symporter at ALOH. Most effective bc 25% of Na is reabsorbed at ALOH. Negative lumen results in hypokalemia and systemic alkalosis.
MOA - Osmotic Diuretics
Acts 1st in the ALOH and 2nd in PCT. Interferes with transport mechanism. Increasing urinary excretion of electrolytes. Also reduces medullary tonicity, increase renal blood flow.
MOA - Thiazide Diuretics
Inhibit Na/Cl symporter in DCT. results in inhibition of re-absorption of Na and Cl. Moderate efficacy bc of 5% Na. Inhibits K and Mg re-absorption but increases re-absorption of Ca.
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI)
Caused by impaired responsiveness of the kidney to ADH
Neutral Protamine Hagedorn (NPH) and Vetsulin
Intermediate Insulins. Given SC only (degraded if given orally and may cause anaphylaxis if given IV). Most common form of insulin for maintenance in dogs; may be too short for felines. Difficult to dose less than 1U. Vetsulin has a pen that allows accurate dosing down to 0.5U.
Sodium nitroprusside, Nitroglycerin, Isosorbide dinitrate. Formation of the reactive radical nitric oxide (NO). Relaxation of smooth muscle of blood vessels.
Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor. Inhibits pruritogenic and pro‐inflammatory cytokines by inhibiting JAK1 and JAK3 without inhibiting cytokines involved in hematopoiesis that are dependent on JAK2. For the control of pruritus associated with allergic dermatitis and atopic dermatitis in dogs over 12 months of age.
Serotonin Antagonists; 5HT3 receptor antagonist (central and peripheral). Prevention and treatment of anticancer chemotherapyinduced nausea and vomiting. Antiemetic and prokinetic
Oral Calcium options
Calcium gluconate/lactate, calcium carbonate calcium chloride, calcium acetate and calcium proprionate
Calcium gluconate and Calcium chloride
"Milk fever" for large animals and "eclampsia" for small animals. Sudden increase in calcium usage for which the patient cannot adapt rapidly enough - generally associated with birth/lactation.
Class IB. Digitalis-induced arrhythmias in dogs only.
Phenoxybenzamine is the drug of choice.
Physiological Effects - Glucocorticoids
Increased calcium excretion, reduced fever, suppress immune response (dose dependent), lymphotoxic
An inodilator, positive inotrope, vasodilator, and positive chronotrope. Sensitizaion to calcium by enhancing interaction between calcium and troponin C complex.Increase intracellular calcium. Inhibits PDE III and V. Balanced vasodilation leads to reduction in both cardiac preload and afterload. Treats CHF in dogs. Effective with heart failure due to both dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and chronic degenerative valvular disease (CVD). Can cause seizures. DO NOT USE IN HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY PATIENTS! Oral ingestion and metabolically activated in liver. Bound to plasma proteins.
Class IA. More effective for ventricular arrhythmias than atrial arrhythmias.
Class II. Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. Digitalis-induced tachyarrhythmias. Arrhythmias due to inhalation anesthesia
Inhibit thyroid hormone synthesis and inhibit conversion of T4 to T3 in tissues. Also efficacious. Higher incidence of serious side-effects (higher risk)
Protamin Zine/PZI (Prozinc)
Long Acting Insulin, Given SC only. A veterinary approved product (40 IU/mL). May have shorter duration than the rest of the long-acting insulin types listed, particularly in cats.
Class IA. Used for ventricular arrhythmias and atrial fibrillation in horses (drug of choice), cattle and large breeds of dogs.
Ranitidine and Nizatidine
H2 Antagonist; Not Cimetidine or Famotidine have cholineregic activity by inhibiting acetyl cholinesterase (AchE) stimulating gastrointestinal motility. Can be use as a prokinetic.
Short Acting insulin. Can be given IV, IM or SC. IV CRI (not boluses). Used for critical care patients (DKA, hyperosmolar). Fast onset and short duration. Require at least TID dosing so not good long term.
converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin I
Salt esters (Na Succinate, Na Phosphate)
Used for glucocorticoids as an injectable excipient. Make the steroid soluble. Makes it suitable for IV administration. Onset is faster but duration unchanged.
Severe/uncommon Side Effects of Methimazole
Refractory GI signs, idiosyncratic reactions (facial excoriation, hepatopathy, bone marrow suppression)
Side Effects - Histamine Antagonists
Anticholinergic effect, Gastrointestinal irritation, alpha-adrenergic blocking effect (phenothiazines)
Side Effects - short term - Glucocorticoid
(~3-5 days). Usually not serious unless concurrent factors. Lab changes (stress leukogram, decrease thyroid). Polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia. Fetal abnormalities/abortion. More severe side effects ~can~ occur
Side Effects – long term - Glucocorticoid
Increased susceptibility to infection. Skin changes (hyperpigmentation, thinning, alopecia). Collagen disease (cruciate injury), delayed wound healing. Hypertension, thromboembolic disease. Panting. Addisonian signs (with withdrawal – ‘iatrogenic Addison’s. Dose must be tapered if on steroids more than a few days
Potassium sparing diuretic. Competiviely blocks aldosterone binding. Results in excretion of NaCl and retains K and H. Efficacy is mild because of 2% Na reabsortion in DCT. Treatment of primary and secondary hyperaldosteronism. Adverse effects: Hyperkalemia and acidosis. Administered orally, bound to plasma protein, metabolized in liver to active metabolite. Action is slow and duration is long.
Atrial fibrilation, atrial flutter, and atrial tachycardia
Terfenadine and Astemizole
H1 2nd generation; Have been associated with cardiac arrhythmias
Therapeutic Use - ACE Inhibitors
CHF, hypertension, CHRONIC renal insufficiency in cats
Therapeutic Use - Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors
Treatment of open-angle glaucoma and udder edema
Therapeutic Use - Cardiovascular Diuretics
Treatment of edema associated with congestive heart failure (CHF).
Therapeutic Use - Osmotic Diuretics
Treatment of: Cerebral edema, glaucoma, ACUTE renal failure. Mobilization of edema fluid. Used in patients with drug overdose.
Therapeutic Use - Histamine Antagonists
Allergy and anaphylaxis, antimotion sickness
Therapeutic Use - Loop or High Ceiling Diuretics
Treatment of: acute pulmonary edema, pulmonary congestion, generalized edema and CHRONIC and ACUTE renal failure, udder edema. Effective in the treatment of edema of nephrotic syndrome.
Therapeutic Use - Thiazide Diuretics
Treatment of edema of CHF, hypertension, udder edema, and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.
Therapeutic Uses - Glucocortioids
Diagnostic testing: low or high dose dexamethasone suppression tests to test for hyperadrenocorticism. Allergies, Suppress inflammation, Immunosuppression, Replacement therapy (Addison's)
Therapeutic Uses - H2 Antagonists
Peptic ulcer, Gastric erosive disease, Gastroesophageal reflux disease, Duodenal ulcer
Methimazole, carbimazole, propylthiouracil (PTU)
Are the only veterinary approved product.
Treatment for Hypocalcemia
Replace the calcium deficit until the patient can "catch up"
Treatment of Acute/Transient Hypoglycemia
Diet, Dextrose 50% solution (crystalloid fluid), Glucagon (hormone)
Treatment of Atrial Fibrilation in Dogs
Digoxin, Propranolol, Quinidine, Procainamide
Treatment of Atrial Flutter in Dogs
Digoxin, Quinidine, Procainamide, Propranolol
Treatment of Atrial Tachycardia in Dogs
Digoxin, Procainamide, Propranolol, Quinidine, Phenytoin
Treatment of Cardiac asystole (cardiac resuscitation)
Treatment of CHF
Positive inotropic drugs, inodilators, vasodilators, diuretics, B-blockers. Also: oxygen therapy, morphine sulfate, aminophylline, nebulization of ethanol (20%)
Treatment of Chronic Glycemia
Diet and corticosteroids
Treatment of Hypoglycemia
Corticosteroids - Combat hypoglycemia by increasing gluconeogenesis, decreasing glucose uptake and stimulating glucagon secretion
Treatment of Second degree AV block
Atropine, Isoproterenol, Glucagon
Treatment of Sinus Bradycardia
Atropine and Isoproterenol
Treatment of Tachyarrhythmias in Cats
Beta blockers are the drugs of choice for both supraventricular and ventricular tachyarrhythmias
Treatment of Ventricular Premature Complexes in Dogs
Quinidine, Procainamide, Lidocaine, Phenytoin, Propranolol
Treatment of Ventricular tachycardia in Dogs
Procainamide, Lidocaine, Quinidine, Phenytoin, Propranolol
Triamterene and Amiloride
Potassium sparing diuretic. Blocks epithelial Na channels at DCT. Results in excretion of Na and retention of K and H. Treatment of hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia, edematous disorders and hypertension. Adverse effects: hyperkalemia and acidosis. Administered orally. Amiloride is excreted by the kidneys and Triamterene is converted to an active metabolite in the liver.
Type 1: Insulin dependent
Hyperglycemia mostly seen in dogs. Absolute deficiency of insulin from autoimmune destruction of B cells. Can only be treated by insulin replacement.
Type 2: Non-insulin dependent
Mostly seen in cats. Insulin deficiency and resistance.
Types of Bradyarrhythimias
Cardiac asystole (cardiac resuscitation), Second degree AV block, and Sinus Bradycardia
Ventricular Premature Complexes and Ventricular tachycardia
Verapamil and Diltiazem
Supraventricular tachyarrhythmias and Myocardial hypertrophy. Diltiazem is a drug of choice in cats.
Leukotriene receptor antagonists (selective competitive antagonists for LTD4 and LTE4 receptors. Prevention of bronchoconstriction in bronchial asthma in cats.