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-organizational objectives search and scanning procedures
-data collection
-problem identification
problem classification

intelligence phase - of the decision making process


-formulating a model
-set criteria for choice
-search for alternatives
predict and measure outcomes
(validation of the model)

design phase - of the decision making process


-solution to the model
-sensitivity analysis
-selection of the best alternative
-plan for implementation
-design a control system
(verification, testing of proposed solution)

choice phase- of the decision making process


a system that connects computers and other devices (e.g., printers) via communications media so that data and information can be transmitted among them.

computer network


refers to the transmission capacity of a network; it is stated in bits per second.

band width


based on the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) 2010 definition, broadband is the transmission capacity of a communications medium

broad band


connects two or more devices in a limited geographical region, usually within the same building, so that every device on the network can communicate with every other device.

Local area network (LAN)


): a network that covers a large geographical area. WANs typically connect multiple LANs. Th ey are generally provided by common carriers such as telephone companies and the international networks of global communications services providers. have large capacity, and they typically combine multiple channels (e.g., fi ber-optic cables, microwave, and satellite). Th e Internet is an example

Wide area network (WAN)


organizational interconnected networks consisting of multiple LANs and may also include multiple WAN's.r in this chapter) faster than 4 megabits per second (Mbps).

Enterprise network


– secure network inside an organization that can use Internet infrastructure

intranet (not internet)- Boundaries


creates private network connecting two computers together; strong security

Virtual Private Networking (VPN)- boundaries


Parts of intranets of multiple companies/locations connected together.



continuous waves that transmit information by altering the characteristics of the waves. Analog signals have two parameters, amplitude and frequency.

analog signals


discrete pulses that are either on or off, representing a series of bits (0s and 1s). Th is quality allows digital signals to convey information in a binary form that can be interpreted by computers.

digital signals


converts digital signals to analog signals—a process called modulation—and analog signals to digital signals—a process called demodulation

modem(modulator- demodulator)


a pathway or medium communicating data from one location to another.

communication channel


: is the physical media used to send data (e.g., twisted-pair wire, coaxial cable, fiber optic cable, satellite, etc.).

communication media


the most prevalent form of communications wiring used for almost all business telephone wiring and As the name suggests, it consists of strands of copper wire twisted in pairs. It is relatively inexpensive to purchase, widely available, and easy to work with.

twisted pair wire


: a single strand of insulated copper wire. It is much less susceptible to electrical interference, and it can carry much more data than twisted-pair. It is commonly used to carry high-speed data traffic as well as television signals.

coaxial cable


: consists of thousands of very thin filaments of glass fibers that transmit information via light pulses generated by lasers. The fiber-optic cable is surrounded by cladding, a coating that prevents the light from leaking out of the fiber.

fiber optic cable


Application Layer: enables client application programs to access the other layers, and it defines the protocols that applications use to exchange data.
Transport Layer: provides the application layer with communication and packet services.
Internet Layer: responsible for addressing, routing, and packaging data packets.
Network Interface Layer: places packets on, and receives them from, the network medium, which can be any networking technology.

Four Layers of the TCP/IP Reference Model


divides processing work among two or more computers which enables computers in different locations to communicate with one another via telecommunications.

distributed processing


links two or more computers in an arrangement in which some machines, called servers, provide computing services for user PCs, called clients.

client/server computing


a type of client/server distributed processing where each computer acts as both a client and a server. Each computer can access (as assigned for security or integrity purposes) all files on all other computers.

peer-to-peer processing (p2p)


a system of universally accepted standards for storing, retrieving, formatting, and displaying information via a client/server architecture.

world wide web


a network of networks… a global WAN that connects approximately 1 million organizational computer networks in more than 200 countries on all continents, including Antarctica. It has become so widespread that it features in the daily routine of nearly 2.5 billion people.



a network that uses Internet protocols so that users can take advantage of familiar applications and work habits. Intranets support discovery (easy and inexpensive browsing and search), communication, and collaboration inside an organization.



connects parts of the intranets of different organizations which enables business partners to communicate securely over the Internet using virtual private networks (VPNs)



Consumer demand for content delivered over the Internet is increasing rapidly, and many experts are now concerned that

the future of the internet


the increasing number of people who work online
the soaring popularity of Web sites such as YouTube that require
large amounts of bandwidth
the tremendous demand for high-definition television delivered over the Internet.

Internet users will experience brownouts from three factors