Exam 2 Flashcards Preview

American Lit > Exam 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (39):
1

Naturalism definition

The individual is controlled by forces both inside (physical, biological) and outside (social, environmental). Therefore, the individual is controlled by forces outside of individual control

2

Naturalism characteristics

Objectivity
Frankness
Amoral attitude
Philosophical determinism
Pessimism

3

Objectivity

Supposed to seek the truth like a scientist
Don't try to change the world, just describe it

4

Frankness

Doesn't just talk about the niceness
Entire human should be described
Particularly deeper instincts like sex, fear, hunger

5

Amoral attitude

Recording and not judging

6

Philosophical determination

Characteristic that most distinguishes the first and second waves
Claim that the individual is controlled by outside forces (biological and environmental)

7

Pessimism

Dark vision of the world
Drawn to the low and ugly
People are driven by sex, greed, mob psychology
Characters are divided into "haves" and "have nots"
Free will is an illusion
Everyone is shaped by blind chance and outside forces

8

What separates Naturalism from the first wave of Realism?

Philosophical determination

9

Blackness of whiteness

White should represent purity and innocence but it represents blankness and malignancy

10

Aristotelian Tragedy

Exposition, rising action, climax, falling action, resolution

11

Hubris

Excessive pride or self-confidence

12

White Silence

Story that takes place in the snow in isolation

13

Modernism definition

Avant-garde movement where artists are most interested in experimentation to develop a distinct and new voice in literature

14

Modernism characteristics

Dark view of humanity
Sense of betrayal by the past
Imposing order and meaning on a chaotic world

15

How is Modernism a reaction to WWI?

Young writers wanted to make art that reflected their experience
Romantic thoughts of war--> trench warfare is a reality

16

The importance of experimentation and technique for modernists

To develop a new voice

17

European poets vs. Native poets

Expat who lives in Europe vs. those who lived and worked in America with American influences

18

Art as a measure of cultural worth

If we are more interested in material culture, this reflects that something is wrong with our cultural health

19

Blank verse

No rhyme
Usually in iambic pentameter

20

Narrative poetry

Tells a story

21

Literature of the town

When an author creates a universe in which a lot of their poems exist; based on reality

22

Robinson's themes and concerns

Personality/psychological inner nature
Human belief and search for an organized principle (something that gives value to our lives)
Failure of success
Naturalistic (characters are victimized by environment and biology)

23

How is Robinson a transition figure?

Naturalism-->Modernism
Wrote for so long that his work spans both movements
Modernist: dark view of humanity
Naturalist: Characters are victimized by environmental and biological factors)

24

Failure of success in Robinson

Richard Cory's suicide; a person can have all the things needed to be successful, but still fail on a spiritual level

25

Importance of form to Frost

Used strict form to impose order on the world

26

Imagism definition

A calculated move to shift poetry to its original qualities

27

Imagism characteristics

Primacy of the image
Rhythm must have meaning
Objectivity
Use common speech but exact wording
Absolute freedom of choice
No cliches
No extra words
No abstractions
No ornament

28

What Pound believes an image should do + examples

An image should evoke an emotional and intellectual complex (reaction) at the same moment

29

Hemingway hero

The only thing a man can do to maintain his dignity is to act as if there are things over which he has control

30

Hemingway code

Code of professionalism, discipline
Things that can be perfected and practiced

31

Iceberg theory

What you see on the surface is only 1/8 of the story

32

Dissipation

To make nothing out of something

33

Moral bankruptcy

Fitzgerald; lacking any spirituality or values

34

Definition of Southern Literature

Writing produced below the Mason-Dixon line and west to Texas

35

Characteristics of Southern Literature

Unified by:
Sense of place
Sense of history
Sense of culture

36

Sense of place

Place is important
Agrarian culture
Symbiotic relationship with land

37

Sense of history

Only part of the US that has lived in a defeated state
Burden of slavery
Loss of men in war

38

Sense of culture

Protestant
Fear of the devil
Manners

39

Wasteland motif

Everything is barren and nothing grows