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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (77)
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used to better understand a phenomena w/out experimentation; can still have IVs and DVs that can be OD’d but you don’t design an experiment; concerned with what’s associated with phenomena, which variables go 2gh; in what way the variables go 2gh; not effectively manipulating to establish causation

descriptive methods


manipulating IVs to examine impact on DVs; use control to try to establish causation

experimental methods


observing behavior while it occurs

direct observation


making observations indirectly as through examining evidence of past behavior using physical traces or archival records

indirect observation


direct observation of behavior in a ___ setting w/out any attempt by observer to intervene; observer acts as passive recorder of events as they occur ___ly

naturalistic observation


extent to which results of a research study can be generalized to different populations, settings, and conditions; established by examining the extent to which a study's findings may be used to accurately describe subjects, settings, and conditions beyond those used in the study

external validity


observers play a dual role; they observe people's behavior and they participate actively in situation they are observing;
a) individuals who are being observed know the observer is present for purpose of collecting info about their behavior
b) those who are being observed don't know they're being observed; helps with problem of reactivity

participant observation (a. undisguised, b. disguised)


occurs when people react to fact that they're being observed by changing their normal behaviors



every action has an uncertain effect; aka the observer/experimenter effect; therefore, an observer, even if not actively engaging, has an effect on the environment and measurements of a sys can’t be made w/out effecting the sys; our observations change outcome and behavior of those involved in the show

Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle


systematic errors in observation often resulting from observer’s expectancies re: outcome of study (i.e.: expectancy effects)

observer bias


cues given by the experimenter / observer that cause the participant to act in the way the participant believes researcher wants him/her to act

demand characteristics


causes participants to change their normal behavior because they want to look “good” and present themselves in “best possible light”)

social desirability


setting up a situation to observe a specific event; putting something in place, but not quite an experiment bc we’re not manipulating IV; often the observer intervenes in order to cause an event to occur or to "set up" a situation so that events can be more easily recorded

structured observation


when experiments manipulate 1 or more IVs in a field setting; both an experiment and observation w/ intervention bc is an experiment with application; procedure when a researcher manipulates 1(+) IVs in a natural setting in order to determine effect on behavior; most extreme form of intervention in observational methods

field experiment


narrative records; verbal descriptions; requires coding into numerical data

qualitative data


measured numerically; involves numerical analysis

quantitative data


process of abstracting and summarizing behavioral data, trying to find themes, narrowing (how we lessen amount of data collected)

data reduction


converting observed behavior into quantitative data; the identification of units of behavior that are related to goals of study



degree to which 2(+) independent observers agree; when observers disagree, we become uncertain about what's being measured and behaviors and events that actually occurred; determined using (# times 2 observers agree / # opportunities to agree) * 100%

interobserver / interrater reliability


exclusive categories w/out mathematical meaning; Sex, race; independent categories

nominal data


rank order (we know greater or less than, but not by how much); Olympic medals, ranking favorites

ordinal data


info about rank order + points between are equidistant; Temperature (has a zero, but doesn’t mean absence of temp)

interval data


rank order, equidistant, meaningful zero; Now zero means a property is absent; Age, weight, exam grades

ratio data


when researchers seek representative samples by choosing various time intervals for their observations; intervals may be selected systematically or randomly or both

time sampling


involves observing behavior in as many different locations and under as many different circumstances and conditions as possible; interested in trying to get pic of someone’s behavior, so we look at them in different settings / across situations

situation sampling


only when behavior occurs; sampling is driven by a particular event

event sampling


methods where behavior is observed ___ly through records and other evidence of people's behavior; obtained by examining physical traces and archival records; non-reactive; use real world evid to test hyps w/out participant involvement

indirect observation


remnants, fragments, and products of past behavior; consists of "use traces" and "products"

physical traces


physical evidence that results from use / non-use of an item

(results from naturally occurring events
involves manipulation by the investigator; result from some intervention by researcher)

remnant use traces (natural / controlled)


creations, constructions, or other artifacts of behavior; using products of societies to gain insights

remnant products