Exam #2 Flashcards Preview

Psychology 210 > Exam #2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam #2 Deck (68):

What are examples of gross motor skills?

Physical abilities that involve large muscle movements, such as running, climbing, hopping, and jumping


What are examples of fine motor skills?

Physical abilities that involve small, coordinated movements, such as drawing and writing one's name


What is BMI for obesity?

BMI at or above the 95th percentile compared to U.S. norms


Epigenetic factors related to obesity

Events in womb and at birth may create obesity-linked changes in DNA Rapid weight gain during infancy and early childhood is stronger predictor of later obesity; outweighs genetics predisposition


What is conservation?

Knowledge that the amount of a given substance remains the same despite changes in its shape or form


What are examples of conservation?

1. An adult gives a child a round ball of clay and asks that boy or girl to make another ball " just as big and heavy." Then she reshapes the ball so it looks like a pancake and asks, "Is there still the same amount now?" 2. Present a child with two identical glasses with equal amounts of liquid. Make sure he tells you, "Yes, they have the same amount of water or juice." Then, pour the liquid into a tall, thin glass while the child watches and ask, " Is there more or less juice now, or is there the same amount?"


What is class inclusion?

Understanding that a general category can encompass several subordinate elements


What is an example of class inclusion?

Spread 20 skittles and a few Gummi Bears on a plate and ask a 3-year old, "Would you rather have the skittles or the candy?" and she is almost certain to say, " The Skittles," even when you have determined beforehand that both types of candy have equal appeal. She gets mesmerized by the number of Skittles and does not notice that "candy" is the label for both.


What is Seriation?

Ability to put things in order according to some principle, such as size


What is identity constancy?

Person’s core “self” stays the same despite changes in external appearance Children have an inability to grasp identity constancy


What is animism?

The belief that inanimate objects are alive


What is artificialism?

The belief that humans make everything in nature


What is egocentrism?

          An inability to understand another’s perspective


Vygotsky’s theoretical concepts

Zone of proximal development (ZPD) 

The gap between a child's ability to solve a problem totally on his own and his potential knowlege if taught by a more accomplished person.


The process of teaching new skills by entering a child's zone of proximal development and tailoring one's effort to that person's competence level.



informational processing theory ideas

  • Rehearsal - A learning strategy in which people repeat information to embed it in memory
  • Selective attention - A learning strategy in which people manage their awareness so as to attend only to what is relevant and to filter out unneeded attention
  • Inhibition -a voluntary or involuntary restraint on the direct expression of an instinct.


What are the syptoms of ADHD?

–Excessive restlessness

–Easily distracted

–Difficulties focusing

–Usually diagnosed in elementary school

–Most often diagnosed in boys

–More often diagnosed in the United States


Diagnosis/intervention of ADHD

•Reduce distractions.

•Allow special time for exercise.

•Give the child special time and help with activities that demand several steps.

•Minimize the need to multitask.

•Consider psycho-stimulant medication.

•Avoid power assertion. Do not define your child as a “bad kid.”


What is theory of mind?

  • Understanding that other people have different beliefs and perspectives from one’s own
    • Emerges about age 4–5
    • Typical in Western cultures


What is emotional regulation?

Capacity to manage one’s emotional state


What is externalizng tendencies?

A personality style that involves acting on one's immediate impulses and behaving disruptively and aggresively. 


What is internalizng tendencies?

A personality style that involves intense fear, social inhibition, and often depression


Self esteem difference between a 3 year old and a 8/9 year old

–3-year-old self-descriptions focus on external facts

–Fourth grader’s self-descriptions are:

•Internal and psychological

Anchored in feelings, abilities, and inner traits


What happens to self esteem during middle childhood?

It declines


What is the self esteem like for a preschooler…early childhood?

Greatest self esteem, they are egocentic. They believe they are comptent in all domains. They don't see others viewpoints of themselves. 


What is the task during industry vs. inferiority stage according to Erikson?

Managing our emotions and realizing that real-world success invloves hard work


Examples of prosocial behavior

Sharing, helping, and caring actions


Difference between empathy and sympathy


–Feeling exact emotion that another experiences


–Involves feeling upset for a person who needs help


Discipline technique of induction

The ideal discipline style for socializing prosocial behavior, involving getting a child who has behaved hurtfully to empathize with the pain he has caused the other person.


Guilt’s impact on prosocial behavior

Guilt diminishes us; guilt can cause us to act prosocially


What are the types of agression and their examples?

Proactive aggression: Acts that are actively instigated to achieve a goal

–Emotionally cool and more carefully planned

Reactive aggression: Acts that occur in response to being frustrated or hurt

–Furious, disorganized, impulsive response

Direct aggression

–Everyone can see it

–At its peak at about 2 or 3; declines as children get older

–More common in boys, especially physical aggression

Relational aggression

–Carried out indirectly, through damaging or destroying the victim’s relationships

–Occurs mainly during elementary school and may be at its peak during adolescence

–It is common throughout adult life


Hostile attributional bias

The tendency of highly agressive children to see motives and actions as threatning when they are actually benign.


Rough-and-tumble play…what is it? Normal development?

•Excited shoving, wrestling, and running around

•Most apparent with boys


Gender schema theory

Explanation for gender- stereotyped behavior that emphasizes the role of cognitions; specifically, the idea that once children know their own gender label ( girl or boy), they selectively watch and model their own sex.


Friendships vs popularity

Friendship involves relating with a single person in a close one-to-one way

Popularity is a group concern that requires rising to the top of the social totem pole


Types of family units

Two-parent families



–Adoptive, Gay, Foster, and Grandparent-headed families

One-parent families

–Traditional, gay, bisexual, grandparent

Unmarried couples

–Typically mother-headed


Examples of parenting styles

Authoritative Parents

•Best possible child-rearing style

•Parents rank high on both nurturance and discipline, providing both love and clear

•family rules

Authoritarian Parents

•Parents provide plenty of rules but rank low on child-centeredness, stressing unquestioning obedience

Permissive Parents

•Type of child-rearing in which parents provide few rules but rank high on child-centeredness,  being extremely loving but providing little discipline

Rejecting-neglecting Parents

•Worst child-rearing approach, in which parents provide little discipline and little nurturing or love



Children who rebound from serious  early life traumas to construct successful adult lives.

Qualities of resilent children 

–Superior emotional regulation skills

–Outgoing personality

–Special talent

–High self-efficacy and optimistic world view

–Strong faith or sense of meaning in life

–At least one warm, loving relationship

–Good “genes”: easy temperament, superior intellectual and social skills


What is corporal punishment?

The use of physical force to discipline a child


Types of discipline…most popular in US?

Spanking and timeouts ( most popular in US), and taking away priveleges 


Child maltreatment

Any act that seriously endangers a child's physical or emotional well-being.


What and who is/are a mandated reporter

A mandated reporter is a person who, because of his or her profession, is legally required to report any suspicion of child abuse or neglect to the relevant authorities. 


What is dyslexia?

Dyslexia (underlying neurological impairment)

–Reading difficulties, lack of fluency, poor word recognition

–Higher risk for developing other psychological difficulties (anxiety, depression)

–May also be diagnosed with ADHD (15%-50%)


sternberg’s triarchic theory on intelligence

Analytic (academic)

Creative (producing novel ideas or innovative work)

Practical (common sense or “street smarts”)



•Involves hormonal and physical changes that contribute to sexual maturity and adult height


Puberty rites

–“Coming of age” events scripted  to highlight entrance into adulthood

–Menarche and spermarche


Western view of teenage sex

The lack of person-enviroment fit, when our body is passionately saying "have sex" and society is telling us to "just say no" to intercourse


Secular trend

•A century-long decline in the average age at which children reach puberty in the developed world (signaled by menarche).


Hormonal system for onset of puberty…know the order

As you can see here, in response to various genetic and environmental influences, the hypothalamus releases a hormone that stimulates the pituitary gland to produce its own hormones, which cause the ovaries in girls and the testes in boys to grow and secrete estrogens and testosterone, producing the physical changes of puberty.


Examples of primary and secondary sex characteristics

Primary sexual characteristics: Changes that directly involve the organs of reproduction; rate variations

•Growth of uterus, maturation of the ovaries, onset of menarche

•Growth of penis, testes, onset of spermarche

Secondary sexual characteristics: Physical changes not directly involved in reproduction

•Hair growth, voice changes, acne, breast development


The order of female puberty changes

•Six months after growth spurt begins development of breasts and pubic hair occurs

•Menarche begins in middle to final stage

•Rate of change is variable; affected by when process starts

•Dramatic internal changes


Which changes occur first for boys

•After growth of testes and penis begins, growth of body hair, height, and muscle mass

•Change in cardiovascular system, frame, larynx

•Hands, legs, and feet grow first


Effect on girls who mature early is...

•Special risk of developing acting-out behaviors

–Gravitate to older friends

–Unprotected sex

–Possible bullying victims

–Possible disconnect from school (poor grades)

•Risk of becoming anxious/depressed

–Body dissatisfaction



Review Harter’s research on self esteem for girls…what is most important to girls

–For adolescents, contentment with one’s appearance outweighs any other category, more for girls


Eating Disorders

Anorexia nervosa

–Characterized by self-starvation to being 85% or less of healthy body weight

•Starvation can destroy body organs and cause death.

•Medical emergencies require hospitalization (2/3 of ideal weight or less).

–Menstruation ceases

–Distorted body image

Bulimia nervosa

–Characterized by at least biweekly cycles of binging and purging

•In addition to forced vomiting, purging may include taking laxatives and/or diuretics, fasting, and excess exercise. 

–Major consequences

•Mouth sores, loss of tooth enamel (gray teeth), esophageal ulcers, esophageal cancer

Binge eating 

A newly labeled eating disorder defined by recurrent, out-of-control binging accompanied by feelings of disgust 


When do we first experience sexual feelings…before, during, or after puberty

Before puberty


Why is adolescence a separate life stage

Stage of life defined as “storm and stress”

Intense moodiness, emotional sensitivity, and risk-taking


What is Piaget’s formal operational stage…what changes occur

–Final stage of cognitive growth (age 12)

•Can think logically about concepts and hypothetical possibilities

–Can argue both sides of an issue

•Can think abstractly about ideas

–Reason about things that are not real

•Can reason like real scientists


Kohlbreg’s moral development theory stages and examples of each stage

•Three levels of moral reasoning

Preconventional level (no internal moral sense)

Conventional level (most adults are here)

Postconventional level (rarely achieved at any age)

Preconventional response – “Heinz should not take the drug because he will be punished and have to go to jail.”

Conventional response – “Although human life is important, Heinz must follow the rules.”

Postconventional response – “Heinz did the right thing because nothing is more important than life.”


Elkind’s theory

Adolescent egocentrism

–Adolescents become aware of the flaws of others

–Thus becoming obsessed with what others think about their own personal flaws

Imaginary audience

•Teens feel as if they are on stage

•Everyone is looking at me and judging me

Personal fable

•Teens feel as if they are unique and special

•Nothing can hurt me

•This may lead to risky behavior, particularly in males


teenage stereotypes

•Stereotype #1: Teenagers who drink are prone to abuse alcohol later in life.

•Stereotype #2: Involvement in academics and/or athletics protects a teen from abusing alcohol.

•Stereotype #3: Middle childhood problems are risk factors for later excessive drinking.


Teenagers normally feel how

typically confident, zestful, and hopeful about the future


understanding the teenage mind as it relates to crime, punishment, and sleep

•Don’t punish adolescents as if they were mentally just like adults.

•Focus on rehabilitation.

•Don’t taint people with a criminal record for minor teenage experimentation.

•Reconsider zero tolerance.

•Provide activities that capitalize on adolescents’ strengths.

•Encourage youth development programs.

•Change high schools to provide a better adolescent−environment fit.

•Considering teen sleep patterns and hands-on learning environments.


Teenagers argue with their parents about what normally



Immigrant paradox

–Some immigrant adolescents dealing with disadvantages flourish


Clique vs. crowd

Cliques: Intimate groups of approximately 6 members with similar attitudes and shared activities

Crowds: Less intimate larger groups (composed of girls and boys)


Order of relationships before becoming romantic

unisex cliques⇒Crowds⇒Mixed-sex cliques⇒Romantic partners


Purpose of gangs

•Gangs: Close-knit delinquent peer group

–Provide members with status, protection, and income (through criminal activities)

–Have potential to turn time-limited adolescent turmoil into life-course criminal careers

–More prevalent in communities where life is dangerous and there are few options for a successful adult life


Who is more likely to end up in high school as part of a deviant group/gang

researchers show how young teens at risk for trouble bond by reinforcing one another with conversations related to being bad . . . and therefore cement the tendency to act in anti-social ways.