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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (26)
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1

severity of dehydration

5% loss is mild dehydration. 6-9% loss is moderate dehydration, 10% loss is severe dehydration

2

hypospadias

urinary meatus is on bottom of penis. more common than epispadias. no circumcision, need foreskin for reconstruction surgery done at 6-12 months

3

epispadias

urinary meatus is on top of penis. no circumcision, need foreskin for reconstruction surgery done at 6-12 months

4

bladder exstrophy

bladder is exposed on outside of body. severe form of epispadias

5

phimosis

cannot retract foreskin on uncircumsized male. normally gradually releases naturally

6

cryptorchidism

undeschended testicles. more common in preemies. at risk for sterility. higher risk for testicular cancer. surgical intervention if not down by 6-12 months

7

hydrocele

fluid in scrotum. usually resolves by 1-2 years old

8

testicular torsion

testicle twists and becomes ischeic. caused by trauma or sexual activity. often causes abdominal pain and N/V

9

enuresis

bed wetting

10

nephrotic syndrome

glomeruli are leaky and cannot filter well. inability to reabsorb filtered protein. causes edema, weight gain, proteinuria, hypoalbumeneia, hyperlipidemia, altered immunity, hypercoagulation

11

hemolytic uremic syndrom (HUS)

caused by E. coli. toxin released which causes triad of hemolytic anemia, renal failure, thrombocytopenia

12

hemolytic uremic syndrom (HUS) S/S

diarrhea (often bloody), high BP, pallor, brusing, oliguria

13

larynotracheobronchitis / croup

viral infection of larynx, trache and bronchi. trachea swells against cartilage causing restriction

14

epiglottitis

caused by bacterial HIB. less common bc of vaccine. sudden high fever. dsyphonia, dysphagi, drooling, distressed respiratory effort

15

bronchiolitis

reative lower airway disaes with inflammation/infection of bronchioles. often caused by RSV

16

cystic fibrosis

most common life-threatening inherited disease. affects body's ability to make good juicy mucus. make thick, viscous, dry mucus instead. affects airways, pancreas, GI tract, skin, reproductive system.

17

NIPS

for newborns and infants. Look at facial expression, crying, breathing pattern, arms, legs, state of arousal

18

FLACC

like NIPS for older kids. Look at face, legs, activity, crying, consolability. For non verbal kids

19

Faces

use for kids who do not understand numbers. This only requires to understand “less and more”

20

extracellular fluid deficit

weight loss, decreased BP, increased small vein filling, decreased cap refill, decreased skin turgor, dizziness, syncope, decreased UO, rapid thready pulse, sunken fontanel, flat neck veins, irritable, lethargic

21

mild dehydration

difficult to detect, thirsty, mucous membranes OK, alert

22

severe dehydration

lethargy/coma, hypotension, rapid weak pulse, cool extremities, slow cap refill, poor skin turgor, parched membranes, no urine, severely sunken eyes/fontanel, change in normal RR

23

moderate dehydration

irritability, lethargy, postural hypotension, elevated pulse, poor skin turgor, decreased UO/tears, slow cap refill, slightly sunken eyes/fontanel

24

extracellular fluid excess

edema, sudden weight gain, bounding pulse, distended neck veins, enlarged liver, orthopnea, lung crackles

25

urinary output in infants, children and adolescents

Infants: 2 ml/kg/hr
Children: ½ to 1 ml/kg/hr
Adolescents: 40-80 ml/hr

26

acute postinfectious glomerulonephritis

inflammation of glomeruli, caused by strep. most common in 2-6 year olds. S/S - asymptomatic, flank plain, malaise, fever, hematuria, edema, high BP. Tx - rest and fluid restriction, strict I&O