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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (177):
1

human speech

Infants also show a preference for __________ __________ than non-speech sounds.

2

Dynamic Skill Framework

human performance

Fischer, in the 1980s and next decades, developed the __________ __________ __________ of cognitive development adding to the above theories the idea that __________ __________ is dynamic – it changes in response to changes in context.

3

taste preferences

Early experiences over time with food may leave lasting __________ __________ and greater exposure early on to a variety of foods may lead to greater willingness to new foods later on.

4

Memory storage

Metamemory

As __________ __________ improves, children obtain increasingly more information about the world. An understanding of __________ - the knowledge and awareness of the content and processes of one’s own memory, continues to develop.

5

logical

concrete

specific things

abstract ideas

3. Concrete Operational children are more __________ about __________ and __________ __________ but will struggle with __________ __________.

6

accommodation

Then the brain in a process called __________ – modifies existing schema to better fit the new experiences and develops a new schema.

7

memory

For learning to occur there must be __________.

8

formal thought

identity, career, morality

adult rules, lifestyles, injustices

4. Formal Operational Stage. This ability for __________ __________ offers multiple options to the teenager to consider __________, __________, __________ as well as results in the questioning of __________ __________ and __________ and the __________ of the world.

9

childhood amnesia

language, repetition, sense of self

similar memories

Theories about __________ __________ – the inability of adults to retrieve memories of childhood seem incomplete. The theory may focus on lack of __________, lack of __________, lack of __________ __________ ___________, or the consolidation of __________ __________.

10

logic

ideas

cognitive ability

state of matter

2. Preoperational Stage. The child cannot use __________ to combine or transform separate __________. This lack of ___________ __________ is exhibited in tasks, for example, that alter the __________ __________ ___________ in superficial ways.

11

neural pathways

sensory input

encoding

faster

automatic

The child continues to build __________ __________ allowing for improved __________ __________ and __________. This allows the information processing to become __________ and more __________.

12

Episodic or autobiographical

– memory of specific life experiences


13

processes

Yet Piaget’s theory still stands and the __________ he identified are still valid.

14

localize sounds

familiarity

Infants can __________ __________ (know where they are coming from) and show a preference for female voice and mother’s voice over a stranger’s voice. This appears to be due to __________, the voice they heard most throughout the pregnancy.

15

Implicit also known as nondeclarative

- memory that occurs without intention

16

Sensory register

– attention allows for brief sensory information

17

Consolidation

stress

familiar

retrieved

__________ appears to be facilitated by sleep and disrupted by __________ and it is easier to consolidate information we are __________ with. For memory to be useful it then has to be __________.

18

Explicit also known as declarative

- deliberate use of memory

19

memory

problem-solving

problem-solving skills

memory

Infants not only exhibit __________ but also __________ __________. If an infant wants to obtain a toy, or ask for something they evidence simple __________ __________ __________ again based in __________.

20

sweet

bitter

sour

sweet

At birth babies can distinguish between __________ and __________ and __________ and prefer __________.

21

Physical exercise

social interaction

The Adult. __________ __________ and __________ __________ also appear to be beneficial in maintaining cognitive abilities.

22

tracking objects

people

This memory development is important for young children as they learn about the world, __________ __________ and ___________ as they move i.e. a spoon of cereal to their mouth, a ball rolls across the floor, a parent walks around the kitchen.

23

ZPD/MKO

What is known........__________.......what is not known

24

Egocentrism

2. Preoperational Stage. This stage is also defined by __________ – seeing the world only through one’s own perspective.

25

familiarity

physical activity

An individual might be less accepting of someone from another culture because of the lack of __________ with sights, sounds, tastes or smells or be better at one __________ __________ over another.

26

warnings

alarms

phones

relationships

isolation

Loss of hearing can result in difficulty understanding a doctor’s instructions, hearing __________ or __________, __________ or doorbells. It can impact __________ as it becomes more difficult to carry on conversations and it may lead to feelings of __________.

27

Memory

__________ is useful and necessary for problem solving.

28

selective attention

sustain attention

actively choose

irrelevant sensory input

systematic, efficient

The development of ___________ ___________ – the ability to focus on something in particular, and to __________ __________, aids this process. A child can __________ __________ what information to gather to enable completion of a task. With time and practice most children are better able to ignore __________ __________ ___________. And as the skill is developed it becomes more ___________, more __________.

29

Evoked Potentials

______________ ____________: different patterns of electrical activity in the brain correspond to different stimuli

30

Information-Processing Theory

Atkinson

Shiffrin

The __________ __________ __________ of memory function proposed by __________ and __________ contains three memory components...

31

40s

glasses, increased lighting, night driving

Changes in vision are often noticeable in the __________. Individuals compensate with __________, __________ __________, or decreasing __________ __________.

32

sensory preferences

nature

nurture

Cultural preferences are likely to lead to __________ __________ in taste, smell, sound, sight, touch and activity. This is a good example of __________ and __________ impacting life responses and choices.

33

adaptation

equilibrium

internal thoughts

external world

The brain allows for __________ - adjustments to the environment, and works to reestablish a sense of __________ - mental stability where ___________ __________ and the __________ ___________ are consistent.

34

action-oriented

consolidated

general event representation

specific day

one image

One idea regarding childhood amnesia is that much of child memory is __________ __________ and memories are __________ into a script or __________ __________ __________ of routine daily activities. A child does not remember a __________ __________ of getting ready for school or bedtime, or what food was ordered at a restaurant but all of these days blend into __________ __________.

35

Scaffolding

physical learning

cognitive learning

__________, structured help, enables a child, teen, or adult, to gradually develop skills. This process occurred for __________ __________ as well as __________ __________ or mental processes.

36

Sensation

_______________is the process by which neurons detect and transmit sensory information to the brain.

37

receiving, integrating

sensory processing disorder,

sensory integration disorder

Some children experience difficulty in __________ and __________ sensation and this can interfere with everyday tasks at home or at school. This is usually referred to as __________ __________ __________ or __________ __________ __________.

38

childhood schema

changed

modified

Another theory regarding childhood amnesia is that the memories are stored in a __________ __________ that has been ___________ and __________ as the individual moves into adulthood.

39

drive

social interaction, medical care, nutrition

Not being able to __________ can drastically change a person’s life if there is not available alternative transportation. It can impact __________ __________, __________ __________, __________, etc.

40

Coordination of Secondary Schemes

1. Sensory Motor Stage. Substages of the Sensory Motor Stage include __________ __________ __________ __________ - in which actions are combined to achieve simple goals

41

optimal level

functional level

According to Fischer, a person’s peak level of cognition is their __________ ___________. The day to day, more energy efficient, level of cognition is their ___________ ___________.

42

Learning

memory

brain growth, more quickly

learning, memory strategies

The Adolescent. __________ and __________ grow substantially throughout adolescence. This is due in part to __________ __________ and the ability to process information __________ __________. It is also due to the development of __________ and __________ __________.

43

memory

aging

young children

incomplete, incorrect

The Adult. In reviewing the research about __________ and __________ it often seems similar to the process that occurred when studying the abilities of __________ __________. The limitations of the research often lead to __________ or __________ information.

44

Object Permanence

A not B error

last found

last placed

symbolic capacity, words, images, objects

Infants go through a process in understanding ___________ ___________. First from “out of sight, out of mind” then to what Piaget called the “___________ ___________ ___________ ___________” where the infant looks for an object where it was __________ __________ rather than where it was __________ __________, and later on to being able to utilize __________ ___________ in which the child can use ___________, ___________, or other __________ to represent the entity.

45

metacognition

In teaching __________ to teens, we also focus on the steps noted on p 252.
First that the brain is impacted by nutrition, physical activity and sleep. A nutritious diet helps a person feel physically and mentally healthy. Physical activity helps keep the brain alert and focused. And sleep appears to be critical in consolidating information into long-term storage. In addition, we can teach intentional attention, finding the motivation or tools to pay attention.

46

motor component

sensory information

The focus in childhood is on developing the __________ __________ and integrating multiple sources of __________ ___________.

47

multi-tasking

multi-tasking

less efficient, less productive

multi-tasking, brain fatigue

During adolescence, and into adulthood, attention is impacted by __________. Research is clear on __________, yet the findings are resisted by many. Research indicates that people are __________ __________ and __________ __________ when __________ and that it can lead more quickly to __________ __________ than doing the same tasks one at a time.

48

sleep

nutrition

physical activity

The Adult. As with individuals of other ages __________, __________, __________ __________ impact memory.

49

postformal thought

Now research is focused on __________ __________ - what stage is beyond that of Piaget’s Formal Operational Stage.

50

nutritious diet

alert, focused

A __________ __________ helps a person feel physically and mentally healthy. Physical activity helps keep the brain __________ and __________.

51

individualized

distinctive learning pathways

needs

talents

Fischer suggests __________ learning instruction. He notes that every individual is unique and will have __________ ___________ __________. Shaping how we teach to fit each person’s distinctive ___________ and __________ will most allow cognitive growth.

52

Sensory register

Short-term memory

Long-term memory

The Information-Processing Theory of memory function proposed by Atkinson and Shiffrin contains three memory components:

53

ecological theory of perception

And Gibson suggests in the___________ ___________ of ____________ “we must perceive in order to move, but move in order to perceive”. So yes, we are wired for sensation and perception but experience is needed to construct full understanding.

54

hear

Newborns can __________ better than they can see.

55

Decentration

2. Preoperational Stage. They are unable to utilize the skills of __________ – the ability to focus on two or more dimensions of a situation

56

Integrating Sensory Information

Senses

multisensory, memory, experience

__________ __________ __________ development. __________ are integrated even in the infant i.e. they hear a sound and look in a direction. But it seems more reflexive. As we enter childhood __________ information, ___________, and __________, integrate with one another to better inform how the child will interact with the environment around them.

57

Gibson

And______________ suggests in the ecological theory of perception “we must perceive in order to move, but move in order to perceive”. So yes, we are wired for sensation and perception but experience is needed to construct full understanding.

58

pattern

In addition, they tend to prefer_____________ to solid and as they mature they prefer more complex stimuli.

59

imaginary audience

the sense that everyone was aware and critical of one’s behavior

60

Preferential looking

________________ ____________: the infant will choose one stimuli over another when two stimuli are presented at the same time but differ in some way

61

Secondary Circular Reactions

1. Sensory Motor Stage. Substages of the Sensory Motor Stage include __________ __________ __________ - which are repetitive acts on objects

62

learned ability

circumstance

variability in skill

context

How a __________ ___________ is expressed is dependent upon the ____________. Fischer expresses this as the developmental range which is defined as the __________ __________ ___________ dependent upon the __________.

63

short-term memory

4

10

Research suggests that infant __________ __________ develops extensively between __________ and __________ months.

64

Object Permanence

1. Sensory Motor Stage. One of the most important concepts of this stage is ___________ ___________ – the understanding that an object exists even if undetectable to the senses.

65

concrete actions

mental manipulation

4. Formal Operational Stage. In this stage the focus moves beyond __________ __________ with objects to __________ __________ of ideas. It is during this stage that we observe abstract and hypothetical thinking. Piaget saw this stage as occurring during adolescent, observing the move from simple problem solving, to hypothesizing and reasoning using intuition and systematic scientific strategies.
This ability for formal thought offers multiple options to the teenager to consider identity, career, morality as well as results in the questioning of adult rules and lifestyles and the injustices of the world.

66

encoded

encoded

consolidated

Not all information is __________ into the memory system and information that is __________ still must be __________ or processed to organize the information into long term storage.

67

jumble of information

It was once thought that to an infant the world was a______________ of ____________ that could not be understood or utilized. But in actuality, researchers had not yet identified the tools that would allow them to more accurately assess the infant’s ability.

68

brain growth

experiences


2. Preoperational Stage. Through __________ __________ and __________ in the world the child will build the skills evident in the next stage of development.

69

Short-term memory

– motivation to hold a limited amount of information for a limited time

70

Semantic

- memory related to language and logic

71

visual scanning

For example,___________ ____________ suggests infants first focus on the contour, the edges of a stimuli, later exploring the interior of the image.

72

Conservation of matter

2. Preoperational Stage. Children in this stage do not exhibit the concept of __________ __________ ___________ – matter does not change when altered in superficial ways.

73

cognitive abilities

earlier

less well defined

Studies using new research tools indicate that __________ __________ appear to develop much __________ and the stages are __________ __________ __________.

74

neural maturation

physical growth

sensory input

thought, experience

When we celebrate a child walking independently for the first time we are actually celebrating the cumulative effects of __________ __________, __________ __________, __________ __________, __________ and __________, with numerous opportunities for balance, falling, and self-organization.

75

Reversibility

2. Preoperational Stage. They are unable to utilize the skills of __________ – mentally being able to undo or reverse an action.

76

auditory receptors

high decibels

loud noises

The __________ ___________ degenerate with age, but research suggests that noise of __________ ___________ or __________ __________ over time can result in hearing loss earlier in life.

77

Neuroscience

structural changes

changes in cognition

__________ utilizing Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is recognizing the actual __________ __________ in the brain that correspond to the noted __________ __________ ___________ that Piaget recognized.

78

irrelevant information

times

means

Adolescents are better able to ignore __________ __________, and use memory strategies such as establishing __________ and ___________ to study information.

79

Habituation

_______________: the infant becomes bored with one stimulus and will react differently to a new stimulus, so we know they are sensing differences

80

four

delineated

Piaget’s Theory has __________ stages, though again research suggests the divisions between stages are not as clearly __________ as offered by Piaget.

81

intuitive theories

Researchers Wellman and Gelman also suggests that infants come into the world with ___________ ___________-a basic knowledge of how the world works. They will show surprise if objects do the impossible, i.e. go through a solid wall or float in the air instead of falling.

82

nervous system

sensory motor areas

The Adult: As we noted in Chap 5 there is gradual and mild degeneration of the __________ __________ as we age that impacts the __________ __________ __________ of the brain.

83

aging models

mental decline

individual specific, skill specific

The Adult. Research using fMRI and psychological tests refute __________ __________ that as people get older they go into a general __________ __________. Rather it is very __________ __________ and __________ __________.

84

modified

development

1900s

Research has ___________ our understanding of __________ since Piaget’s theory was proposed in the early __________.

85

something new

reasoning skills

The Adult. Research also indicates that learning __________ __________, especially tasks that require __________ __________ keep the brain healthier.

86

optimal skill level

completely interfere

Within a supportive context people perform at the ___________ ___________ ___________. And a non-supportive context could __________ ___________ with expression of a skill.

87

Perceptual ability

sensory input

distractions, novel, complicated

__________ __________ may deteriorate along with sensory ability. In other words, the ability to interpret and understand __________ __________ may also decline. This process is worsened by ___________ and is more greatly impacted for __________ or more __________ input.

88

illness

sensory changes

relevance

familiarity, beliefs

The Adult. In addition, __________, __________ __________, motivation or task __________, __________ with tasks, __________ about aging, also impact ability to learn.

89

Relativistic thinking

absolute right answer

many ways

In __________ __________ there is a recognition that there is not one __________ __________ __________ to a problem but it can be viewed in __________ __________.

90

Executive control functions

identify, select means, memory

organize, manipulate, interpret

Parallel processes

__________ __________ ___________ are processes that __________ the problem, __________ __________, utilize the __________, __________, __________ and __________ information to solve the problem. There may be __________ __________, more than one process occurring at a time i.e. listening to the lecture and taking notes.

91

learning

Piaget

Vygotsky

The two theorists would have different approaches to __________. __________ would offer opportunities to explore the world, and __________ would recommend guided participation in social interactions with teachers and more knowledgeable peers. A balance of both, allowing for natural curiosity and time to assimilate information, as well as guidance through tasks, appears to be advantageous in a learning environment.

92

Reflex Activity

1. Sensory Motor Stage. Substages of the Sensory Motor Stage include __________ __________...

93

Cognition

– the process of acquiring knowledge: thinking, understanding,
learning, remembering

94

Dynamic Systems Theory

Thelen and Smith proposed the __________ __________ __________ to explain a child’s highly individualized motor development; each individual taking their own path toward a common behavioral goal.

95

Sucking behavior

has been used to show infants are able to distinguish phonemes, the basic speech sounds, in the first months of life and could discriminate sounds of their native language that they heard in utero from other languages.

96

opportunities

guided participation

social interactions

natural curiosity

assimilate, guidance

Piaget would offer __________ to explore the world, and Vygotsky would recommend __________ __________ in __________ __________ with teachers and more knowledgeable peers. A balance of both, allowing for __________ __________ and time to __________ information, as well as __________ through tasks, appears to be advantageous in a learning environment.

97

Vygotsky

group

culture

social experiences

__________ formulated his ideas around the same time as Piaget. But whereas
Piaget focused on the individual, __________ focused on the __________ and how __________ and __________ __________ impact the development of cognitive abilities.

98

relativistic thinking

perspective

context

In __________ __________ an individual recognizes ideas and thoughts beyond one’s own __________ and the __________.

99

short term memory

several things

Research has shown that a 4 to 6 month old can only hold one thing in __________ __________ __________. But by 10 months they can remember __________ ___________.

100

knowledge, ability

prefrontal cortex

An aging individual may have __________ and __________ that allows them to compensate for loss of abilities as degeneration of the nervous system in normal aging appears to occur less in the __________ __________.

101

knowledge

Metacognition

self-motivate

reward

more effectively

The Adult. But expertise in one area may not transfer to other areas of __________. __________, however, awareness of how one best learns, retains or retrieves information, as well as ways to __________ __________ or __________ oneself, may allow the individual to learn new information __________ __________.

102

learns

expressed

expected

physical, social, emotional

Using Fischer’s theory, we would attend to not only the setting in which an individual __________ but the setting in which the knowledge is __________ or __________ as well. This could include the __________, __________, or __________ aspects of the learning environment.

103

consolidating

long-term storage

And sleep appears to be critical in __________ information into __________ __________ __________.

104

egocentrism

cognitive tasks, language, morality

you can’t see me

explain something

move

2. Preoperational Stage. Piaget believed the __________ affected __________ __________, __________ and __________. We see this behavior in simple ways i.e. the child who covers their eyes and says “__________ __________ __________ __________”, or the child who becomes angry if a parent asks them to __________ __________, or __________ so they can see the T.V.

105

Tertiary Circular Reactions

insight, symbols

1. Sensory Motor Stage. Substages of the Sensory Motor Stage include ___________ ___________ ___________ - in which the child experiments with repetitive acts to see what happens and finally evidence of using __________ and __________.

106

personal hygiene

housekeeping

nutritional needs

An elderly person who is evaluated by family, friends, social service or medical personnel as lacking in __________ __________, __________ or __________ __________ may be responding to changes in the senses of smell and taste.

107

Metacognition

correct strategies

rote, already know

easy, difficult

mnemonics, overlearning

The more informed teens are about __________ - the awareness and understanding of one’s thought processes, the better they seem to be in establishing the __________ __________ for learning i.e. what can be learned by __________, what they __________ __________ or need to study, how long they will need to learn __________ versus __________ tasks, how to use __________ – devices or aids to memory and __________ - studying to the point that information comes quickly and effortlessly.

108

assimilates

As the individual continues to develop neurologically and continues to have experiences, the brain __________ – takes in new information.

109

dynamic

In addition, they are more interested in_____________ or moving stimuli vs static images.

110

longitudinal studies

motivation

interest

daily life

lab

However, these results regarding aging and cognitive ability are based on comparing different cohorts rather than __________ __________. Research also suggest __________ or __________ in tasks may account for some of the differences and there is some evidence that older individuals do better with modes of thinking that are more useful in __________ __________ than the __________.

111

memory development

The Child. Significant changes occur in __________ __________ as a child ages.

112

odors

taste

Individuals as they age may be less sensitive to __________ and to the __________ of food.

113

Locomotion

movement from place to place with purpose. (Childhood)

114

Procedural

– memory pertaining to skills and tasks

115

Private speech

__________ __________ does not just accompany an activity, but it is used as scaffolding, mimicking the process taught by their “mentor”. It helps facilitate thinking and overcoming obstacles.

116

Semantic

procedural

slower processing, encoding

The Adult. __________ and __________ memory decline the least. In part changes occur in __________ __________ and __________. But even with the changes most older adults can acquire new information.

117

Dialectical Thinking

best

perfect

continual change

__________ __________ is a process of looking for the __________ answer rather than a __________ answer and allows for a process of __________ __________.

118

phonemes

the basic speech sounds

119

Adolph and colleagues, critical thinking and evaluation

Later research conducted by___________and_______________ suggested the methodology itself actually accounted for the results. She suggested that infants were wired to show an interest in depth perception and through experience learn how to utilize information about drop offs but did not experience or express fear. This study and other research with infants and children helps us recognize the need for___________ _____________ and _____________.

120

Vision

____________: Infants show preferences in stimuli and how they utilize their sight changes as they develop.

121

Dialectical Thinking

opposing


Another idea is __________ __________ in which an individual recognizes that there may be many __________ yet __________ __________. It is a process of looking for the best answer rather than a perfect answer and allows for a process of continual change.

122

Habituation

Preferential looking

evoked potentials

Operant Conditioning

Four main research techniques have allowed remarkable findings suggesting that babies are smarter and more capable than once believed. These four techniques are:

123

Long-term memory

– relatively permanent and unlimited storage

124

self-regulation

communication

Private speech is used to assist with __________ rather than __________ with others.

125

long term memory

processed

Information needs to be retrieved from __________ __________ __________ and __________ to successfully solve a problem.

126

personal fable

– the idea that one’s thoughts and feelings are unique, either in a negative or positive way.

127

sensitive periods

The Infant: All major senses begin working before birth and appear to have___________ ____________, windows of time when experience is necessary to build optimal sensory ability. It appears that aspects of abilities are innate and mature in a programmed manner over time.

128

underestimated

earlier learning

Researchers early on __________ child memory but parent feedback led to the understanding that what was being assessed missed __________ __________.

129

faces

Infants have a rather adaptive ability to identify __________, to distinguish human from monkey face, Mo’s face from that of a stranger.

130

Sensory threshold

gradual process

compensatory

As we age our __________ __________, the lowest level of stimulation detected, rises. As loss is a __________ __________ it may be difficult to know when __________ aids are necessary.

131

not yet mastered

2. Preoperational Stage. This stage is defined by concepts the child has __________ ___________ ___________. The child cannot use logic to combine or transform separate ideas. This lack of cognitive ability is exhibited in tasks, for example, that alter the state of matter in superficial ways. They are unable to utilize the skills of Decentration – the ability to focus on two or more dimensions of a situation, or Reversibility – mentally being able to undo or reverse an action. Through brain growth and experiences in the world the child will build the skills evident in the next stage of development.
This stage is also defined by Egocentrism – seeing the world only through one’s own perspective.

132

Relativistic Thinking

Marchland and Sinnott suggest __________ __________ is beyond formal operational thought.

133

1. the imaginary audience

2. the personal fable

David Elkind proposed two constructs:

134

private speech

Vygotsky also identified __________ __________, overt speech addressed to the self.

135

visual cliff, Gibson and Walk

Our assumptions about ability can influence research findings. A famous study called the________ ________, conducted by___________ and __________ suggested that children early on developed depth perception and a fear of falling. For a long time, no one questioned these findings.

136

relativistic thinking

flexibility

questions

possibilities

In __________ __________ there is __________ in thinking and information leads to more __________ and __________, thinking outside the box.

137

vision

motor

As __________ and __________ responsivity decline an older individual may need to give up night time and later day time driving as well.

138

habituation

operant conditioning

imitation

response behaviors

The Infant. Research using __________, __________ __________, ___________, and __________ __________ such as looking or surprise reactions, indicate that even young infants learn.

139

touch

temperature

position

movement

cold, pain

Somatosensory senses. Changes in __________, __________, __________, _________ may all be impacted by aging and again can impact safety and quality of life. A person may be less secure in walking or have difficulty dressing, may feel __________ or not experience __________ that warns of a problem.

140

nutrition, physical activity, sleep

steps noted on p 252.
First that the brain is impacted by __________, __________ __________ and __________.

141

sensory system

There are some improvements in the __________ __________ in childhood but basically the system is completed by the end of infancy.

142

Hearing impairment

hearing aids

__________ __________ is three times as prevalent as vision impairment. Yet there is still a stigma attached to using __________ __________ as an indication of being old and infirm.

143

feel touch

warmth

cold

pain

swaddling, breast feeding

Infants can ___________ __________, are sensitive to __________ and __________, respond to __________ and can be comforted for painful events with __________ or __________ __________.

144

areas of expertise

process information

knowledge base

organize, retrieve

The Adult. Adults tend to function cognitively most effectively in their ________ ________ __________. Familiarity likely makes it easier to attend to and __________ __________, build upon the __________ __________, __________ and __________ information.

145

higher I.Q. scores

formal education

domain

familiar tasks

Adults with __________ __________ __________ and adults with more __________ __________ tend to do better on tasks but it also depends upon exposure to the __________ of the tasks. As might be expected individuals do better with __________ ___________.

146

zone of proximal development

MKO

Vygotsky identified the __________ __________ __________ __________ – the place in which a child is able to accomplish, with the support from a more knowledgeable other (__________), more than would be possible on their own.

147

Somatosensory

touch

temperature

pain

kinesthetic

__________ senses occur anywhere in the body in contrast to those above that occur in a specific sense organ. These include __________, __________, __________, __________ knowing of where the body is and how it moves.

148

intentional attention

In addition, we can teach __________ __________, finding the motivation or tools to pay attention.

149

adolescence

simple problem solving

hypothesizing

intuition

scientific strategies

4. Formal Operational Stage. Piaget saw this stage as occurring during __________, observing the move from __________ __________ __________, to __________ and reasoning using __________ and systematic __________ __________.

150

children solve problems

Just as we have a lot to learn about memory a lot remains to be learned about how __________ __________ __________.

151

environment

Our senses are also influenced by our __________.

152

Piaget

schema

brain development

actions

___________ suggested that learning about the world is a process in which __________ __________ and __________ combine to form a __________ - an organized understanding of an aspect of the world.

153

Visual Recognition Memory Test

novel objects

intelligence

Early memory tasks, as the __________ __________ __________ __________ in which infants and toddlers discriminate between objects they have seen before and __________ __________, actually seem to be good early indicators of __________.

154

Piaget

active agents

__________ suggested that individuals are __________ __________ in their own development.

155

Wellman and Gelman

Researchers______________ and ____________ also suggests that infants come into the world with intuitive theories-a basic knowledge of how the world works. They will show surprise if objects do the impossible, i.e. go through a solid wall or float in the air instead of falling.

156

neural connections

trace the neural pathway

Overlearning appears to strengthen __________ __________ and make it easier to __________ __________ __________ __________ to the stored information.

157

Operant Conditioning

________________ ______________: once the subject has developed a learned behavior the stimulus is modified. If the behavior continues the subject did not detect the change, if the behavior does not occur a difference in the stimuli
was perceived.

158

Primary Circular Reactions

1. Sensory Motor Stage. Substages of the Sensory Motor Stage include __________ __________ __________ - which are repetitive acts using one’s own body

159

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

adolescents, adults

three times

class time, studying

_________ __________ __________ __________ __________ studies have shown that when given two goals at the same time, __________ and __________ are more likely to forget details and make __________ __________ more mistakes. Relevant to you might be the negative correlation between multi-tasking during __________ __________ and __________, and student test grades and grade point average.

160

episodic

source

flashbulb

The Adult. For example, it appears that __________, __________ (where did I learn the info) and __________ (where were you when) memory decline the most.

161

Object permanence

younger age

surprise paradigm

3-month old

rudimentary

__________ ___________ is one concept that researchers have found occurs at a much __________ __________ than first proposed by Piaget. Research using the __________ __________, utilizing a surprise reaction to ascertain if a child understands a concept suggests that even a ___________ ___________ has ___________ aspects of object permanence.

162

depth perception

The __________ ___________ noted above is another aspect of vision. She suggested that infants were wired to show an interest in __________ __________ and through experience learn how to utilize information about drop offs but did not experience or express fear.

163

important

important

consolidated

remembered

Memories

Another theory regarding childhood amnesia suggests that what is __________ to adults is not what was __________ to the child and therefore not __________ and __________. If we knew what was important as a child we could garner more __________.

164

50%

formal operations

30-35%

formal operations stage

Research suggests that only about __________ of college students show mastery of __________ __________ and that __________ of adults never make it to the __________ __________ __________.

165

hypothesize

imaginary concepts

oneself

David Elkind proposed that the ability to __________ caused Adolescent Egocentrism, __________ _________ of how others view __________.

166

constructivist

sociocultural perspective

Dynamic Skill Framework of cognitive development

We will be going into more depth on Piaget’s __________ approach and Vygotsky’s __________ __________ and adding Kurt Fischer’s __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ before we look at each of the age groups.

167

Perception

________________is the interpretation of the data gathered by the senses. Both sensation and ______________ together are necessary to experience the world around us.

168

Adolescent

Sensation, perception, adolescence

attend, coordinate, motor skills

sensory difficulties, fail tasks

The __________: __________ and __________ skills are more finely tuned in __________. There is an increase in ability to __________ and to __________ senses and __________ ___________. And an increased expectation of the same. Children who may have slipped by with __________ __________, compensating in one way or another, may now begin to __________ __________.

169

autobiographical

little

Much of what a child remembers is __________ - information about their own lives. Yet most adults remember __________ about their childhood.

170

1. Sensory Motor Stage

2. Preoperational Stage

3. Concrete Operational

4. Formal Operational Stage.

Piaget’s four stages are:

171

conservation of matter

decentration

reversibility

transitivity

seriality, different perspective

3. Concrete Operational. They now understand __________ __________ __________, __________, __________, __________, __________, and that others can have a __________ __________.

172

abstract

hypothetical

4. Formal Operational Stage. It is during this stage that we observe ___________ and __________ thinking.

173

sit

crawl

walk

jump

Motor milestones, learning to __________, ___________, __________, __________ are developed over time as sensory feedback from activity is incorporated into learning.

174

Piaget

active observation,

investigation,

experimentation

__________ proposed that learning about the world is based in neurological wiring but constructed through __________ ___________, ___________ and ___________.

175

overlapping waves theory

strategies

assess the problem

strategy

effective, efficient, strategy

Problem solving in children. Robert Siegler suggests, in his __________ __________ __________, that children learn multiple __________ and then later learn how to __________ __________ __________ and select an appropriate __________ to the problem at hand. With experience and familiarity, they become more __________ and __________ at grabbing the appropriate __________.

176

different odors

unpleasant smells

familiar smells

Newborns also detect __________ ___________. They react by turning away from __________ __________ and can be calmed by __________ ___________ i.e. the smell of mother’s breast milk.

177

aging

cognitive ability

formal operations

concrete operational tasks

More research is needed to better understand __________ and __________ __________. Some studies have shown that older individuals have lower scores on average on Piaget’s tests of not only __________ __________ but with __________ __________ __________ as well.