Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (177):
Infants also show a preference for __________ __________ than non-speech sounds.
Dynamic Skill Framework
Fischer, in the 1980s and next decades, developed the __________ __________ __________ of cognitive development adding to the above theories the idea that __________ __________ is dynamic – it changes in response to changes in context.
Early experiences over time with food may leave lasting __________ __________ and greater exposure early on to a variety of foods may lead to greater willingness to new foods later on.
As __________ __________ improves, children obtain increasingly more information about the world. An understanding of __________ - the knowledge and awareness of the content and processes of one’s own memory, continues to develop.
3. Concrete Operational children are more __________ about __________ and __________ __________ but will struggle with __________ __________.
Then the brain in a process called __________ – modifies existing schema to better fit the new experiences and develops a new schema.
For learning to occur there must be __________.
identity, career, morality
adult rules, lifestyles, injustices
4. Formal Operational Stage. This ability for __________ __________ offers multiple options to the teenager to consider __________, __________, __________ as well as results in the questioning of __________ __________ and __________ and the __________ of the world.
language, repetition, sense of self
Theories about __________ __________ – the inability of adults to retrieve memories of childhood seem incomplete. The theory may focus on lack of __________, lack of __________, lack of __________ __________ ___________, or the consolidation of __________ __________.
state of matter
2. Preoperational Stage. The child cannot use __________ to combine or transform separate __________. This lack of ___________ __________ is exhibited in tasks, for example, that alter the __________ __________ ___________ in superficial ways.
The child continues to build __________ __________ allowing for improved __________ __________ and __________. This allows the information processing to become __________ and more __________.
Episodic or autobiographical
– memory of specific life experiences
Yet Piaget’s theory still stands and the __________ he identified are still valid.
Infants can __________ __________ (know where they are coming from) and show a preference for female voice and mother’s voice over a stranger’s voice. This appears to be due to __________, the voice they heard most throughout the pregnancy.
Implicit also known as nondeclarative
- memory that occurs without intention
– attention allows for brief sensory information
__________ appears to be facilitated by sleep and disrupted by __________ and it is easier to consolidate information we are __________ with. For memory to be useful it then has to be __________.
Explicit also known as declarative
- deliberate use of memory
Infants not only exhibit __________ but also __________ __________. If an infant wants to obtain a toy, or ask for something they evidence simple __________ __________ __________ again based in __________.
At birth babies can distinguish between __________ and __________ and __________ and prefer __________.
The Adult. __________ __________ and __________ __________ also appear to be beneficial in maintaining cognitive abilities.
This memory development is important for young children as they learn about the world, __________ __________ and ___________ as they move i.e. a spoon of cereal to their mouth, a ball rolls across the floor, a parent walks around the kitchen.
What is known........__________.......what is not known
2. Preoperational Stage. This stage is also defined by __________ – seeing the world only through one’s own perspective.
An individual might be less accepting of someone from another culture because of the lack of __________ with sights, sounds, tastes or smells or be better at one __________ __________ over another.
Loss of hearing can result in difficulty understanding a doctor’s instructions, hearing __________ or __________, __________ or doorbells. It can impact __________ as it becomes more difficult to carry on conversations and it may lead to feelings of __________.
__________ is useful and necessary for problem solving.
irrelevant sensory input
The development of ___________ ___________ – the ability to focus on something in particular, and to __________ __________, aids this process. A child can __________ __________ what information to gather to enable completion of a task. With time and practice most children are better able to ignore __________ __________ ___________. And as the skill is developed it becomes more ___________, more __________.
______________ ____________: different patterns of electrical activity in the brain correspond to different stimuli
The __________ __________ __________ of memory function proposed by __________ and __________ contains three memory components...
glasses, increased lighting, night driving
Changes in vision are often noticeable in the __________. Individuals compensate with __________, __________ __________, or decreasing __________ __________.
Cultural preferences are likely to lead to __________ __________ in taste, smell, sound, sight, touch and activity. This is a good example of __________ and __________ impacting life responses and choices.
The brain allows for __________ - adjustments to the environment, and works to reestablish a sense of __________ - mental stability where ___________ __________ and the __________ ___________ are consistent.
general event representation
One idea regarding childhood amnesia is that much of child memory is __________ __________ and memories are __________ into a script or __________ __________ __________ of routine daily activities. A child does not remember a __________ __________ of getting ready for school or bedtime, or what food was ordered at a restaurant but all of these days blend into __________ __________.
__________, structured help, enables a child, teen, or adult, to gradually develop skills. This process occurred for __________ __________ as well as __________ __________ or mental processes.
_______________is the process by which neurons detect and transmit sensory information to the brain.
sensory processing disorder,
sensory integration disorder
Some children experience difficulty in __________ and __________ sensation and this can interfere with everyday tasks at home or at school. This is usually referred to as __________ __________ __________ or __________ __________ __________.
Another theory regarding childhood amnesia is that the memories are stored in a __________ __________ that has been ___________ and __________ as the individual moves into adulthood.
social interaction, medical care, nutrition
Not being able to __________ can drastically change a person’s life if there is not available alternative transportation. It can impact __________ __________, __________ __________, __________, etc.
Coordination of Secondary Schemes
1. Sensory Motor Stage. Substages of the Sensory Motor Stage include __________ __________ __________ __________ - in which actions are combined to achieve simple goals
According to Fischer, a person’s peak level of cognition is their __________ ___________. The day to day, more energy efficient, level of cognition is their ___________ ___________.
brain growth, more quickly
learning, memory strategies
The Adolescent. __________ and __________ grow substantially throughout adolescence. This is due in part to __________ __________ and the ability to process information __________ __________. It is also due to the development of __________ and __________ __________.
The Adult. In reviewing the research about __________ and __________ it often seems similar to the process that occurred when studying the abilities of __________ __________. The limitations of the research often lead to __________ or __________ information.
A not B error
symbolic capacity, words, images, objects
Infants go through a process in understanding ___________ ___________. First from “out of sight, out of mind” then to what Piaget called the “___________ ___________ ___________ ___________” where the infant looks for an object where it was __________ __________ rather than where it was __________ __________, and later on to being able to utilize __________ ___________ in which the child can use ___________, ___________, or other __________ to represent the entity.
In teaching __________ to teens, we also focus on the steps noted on p 252.
First that the brain is impacted by nutrition, physical activity and sleep. A nutritious diet helps a person feel physically and mentally healthy. Physical activity helps keep the brain alert and focused. And sleep appears to be critical in consolidating information into long-term storage. In addition, we can teach intentional attention, finding the motivation or tools to pay attention.
The focus in childhood is on developing the __________ __________ and integrating multiple sources of __________ ___________.
less efficient, less productive
multi-tasking, brain fatigue
During adolescence, and into adulthood, attention is impacted by __________. Research is clear on __________, yet the findings are resisted by many. Research indicates that people are __________ __________ and __________ __________ when __________ and that it can lead more quickly to __________ __________ than doing the same tasks one at a time.
The Adult. As with individuals of other ages __________, __________, __________ __________ impact memory.
Now research is focused on __________ __________ - what stage is beyond that of Piaget’s Formal Operational Stage.
A __________ __________ helps a person feel physically and mentally healthy. Physical activity helps keep the brain __________ and __________.
distinctive learning pathways
Fischer suggests __________ learning instruction. He notes that every individual is unique and will have __________ ___________ __________. Shaping how we teach to fit each person’s distinctive ___________ and __________ will most allow cognitive growth.
The Information-Processing Theory of memory function proposed by Atkinson and Shiffrin contains three memory components:
ecological theory of perception
And Gibson suggests in the___________ ___________ of ____________ “we must perceive in order to move, but move in order to perceive”. So yes, we are wired for sensation and perception but experience is needed to construct full understanding.
Newborns can __________ better than they can see.
2. Preoperational Stage. They are unable to utilize the skills of __________ – the ability to focus on two or more dimensions of a situation
Integrating Sensory Information
multisensory, memory, experience
__________ __________ __________ development. __________ are integrated even in the infant i.e. they hear a sound and look in a direction. But it seems more reflexive. As we enter childhood __________ information, ___________, and __________, integrate with one another to better inform how the child will interact with the environment around them.
And______________ suggests in the ecological theory of perception “we must perceive in order to move, but move in order to perceive”. So yes, we are wired for sensation and perception but experience is needed to construct full understanding.
In addition, they tend to prefer_____________ to solid and as they mature they prefer more complex stimuli.
the sense that everyone was aware and critical of one’s behavior
________________ ____________: the infant will choose one stimuli over another when two stimuli are presented at the same time but differ in some way
Secondary Circular Reactions
1. Sensory Motor Stage. Substages of the Sensory Motor Stage include __________ __________ __________ - which are repetitive acts on objects
variability in skill
How a __________ ___________ is expressed is dependent upon the ____________. Fischer expresses this as the developmental range which is defined as the __________ __________ ___________ dependent upon the __________.
Research suggests that infant __________ __________ develops extensively between __________ and __________ months.
1. Sensory Motor Stage. One of the most important concepts of this stage is ___________ ___________ – the understanding that an object exists even if undetectable to the senses.
4. Formal Operational Stage. In this stage the focus moves beyond __________ __________ with objects to __________ __________ of ideas. It is during this stage that we observe abstract and hypothetical thinking. Piaget saw this stage as occurring during adolescent, observing the move from simple problem solving, to hypothesizing and reasoning using intuition and systematic scientific strategies.
This ability for formal thought offers multiple options to the teenager to consider identity, career, morality as well as results in the questioning of adult rules and lifestyles and the injustices of the world.
Not all information is __________ into the memory system and information that is __________ still must be __________ or processed to organize the information into long term storage.
jumble of information
It was once thought that to an infant the world was a______________ of ____________ that could not be understood or utilized. But in actuality, researchers had not yet identified the tools that would allow them to more accurately assess the infant’s ability.
2. Preoperational Stage. Through __________ __________ and __________ in the world the child will build the skills evident in the next stage of development.
– motivation to hold a limited amount of information for a limited time
- memory related to language and logic
For example,___________ ____________ suggests infants first focus on the contour, the edges of a stimuli, later exploring the interior of the image.
Conservation of matter
2. Preoperational Stage. Children in this stage do not exhibit the concept of __________ __________ ___________ – matter does not change when altered in superficial ways.
less well defined
Studies using new research tools indicate that __________ __________ appear to develop much __________ and the stages are __________ __________ __________.
When we celebrate a child walking independently for the first time we are actually celebrating the cumulative effects of __________ __________, __________ __________, __________ __________, __________ and __________, with numerous opportunities for balance, falling, and self-organization.
2. Preoperational Stage. They are unable to utilize the skills of __________ – mentally being able to undo or reverse an action.
The __________ ___________ degenerate with age, but research suggests that noise of __________ ___________ or __________ __________ over time can result in hearing loss earlier in life.
changes in cognition
__________ utilizing Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is recognizing the actual __________ __________ in the brain that correspond to the noted __________ __________ ___________ that Piaget recognized.
Adolescents are better able to ignore __________ __________, and use memory strategies such as establishing __________ and ___________ to study information.
_______________: the infant becomes bored with one stimulus and will react differently to a new stimulus, so we know they are sensing differences
Piaget’s Theory has __________ stages, though again research suggests the divisions between stages are not as clearly __________ as offered by Piaget.
Researchers Wellman and Gelman also suggests that infants come into the world with ___________ ___________-a basic knowledge of how the world works. They will show surprise if objects do the impossible, i.e. go through a solid wall or float in the air instead of falling.
sensory motor areas
The Adult: As we noted in Chap 5 there is gradual and mild degeneration of the __________ __________ as we age that impacts the __________ __________ __________ of the brain.
individual specific, skill specific
The Adult. Research using fMRI and psychological tests refute __________ __________ that as people get older they go into a general __________ __________. Rather it is very __________ __________ and __________ __________.
Research has ___________ our understanding of __________ since Piaget’s theory was proposed in the early __________.
The Adult. Research also indicates that learning __________ __________, especially tasks that require __________ __________ keep the brain healthier.
optimal skill level
Within a supportive context people perform at the ___________ ___________ ___________. And a non-supportive context could __________ ___________ with expression of a skill.
distractions, novel, complicated
__________ __________ may deteriorate along with sensory ability. In other words, the ability to interpret and understand __________ __________ may also decline. This process is worsened by ___________ and is more greatly impacted for __________ or more __________ input.
The Adult. In addition, __________, __________ __________, motivation or task __________, __________ with tasks, __________ about aging, also impact ability to learn.
absolute right answer
In __________ __________ there is a recognition that there is not one __________ __________ __________ to a problem but it can be viewed in __________ __________.
Executive control functions
identify, select means, memory
organize, manipulate, interpret
__________ __________ ___________ are processes that __________ the problem, __________ __________, utilize the __________, __________, __________ and __________ information to solve the problem. There may be __________ __________, more than one process occurring at a time i.e. listening to the lecture and taking notes.
The two theorists would have different approaches to __________. __________ would offer opportunities to explore the world, and __________ would recommend guided participation in social interactions with teachers and more knowledgeable peers. A balance of both, allowing for natural curiosity and time to assimilate information, as well as guidance through tasks, appears to be advantageous in a learning environment.
1. Sensory Motor Stage. Substages of the Sensory Motor Stage include __________ __________...
– the process of acquiring knowledge: thinking, understanding,
Dynamic Systems Theory
Thelen and Smith proposed the __________ __________ __________ to explain a child’s highly individualized motor development; each individual taking their own path toward a common behavioral goal.
has been used to show infants are able to distinguish phonemes, the basic speech sounds, in the first months of life and could discriminate sounds of their native language that they heard in utero from other languages.
Piaget would offer __________ to explore the world, and Vygotsky would recommend __________ __________ in __________ __________ with teachers and more knowledgeable peers. A balance of both, allowing for __________ __________ and time to __________ information, as well as __________ through tasks, appears to be advantageous in a learning environment.
__________ formulated his ideas around the same time as Piaget. But whereas
Piaget focused on the individual, __________ focused on the __________ and how __________ and __________ __________ impact the development of cognitive abilities.
In __________ __________ an individual recognizes ideas and thoughts beyond one’s own __________ and the __________.
short term memory
Research has shown that a 4 to 6 month old can only hold one thing in __________ __________ __________. But by 10 months they can remember __________ ___________.
An aging individual may have __________ and __________ that allows them to compensate for loss of abilities as degeneration of the nervous system in normal aging appears to occur less in the __________ __________.
The Adult. But expertise in one area may not transfer to other areas of __________. __________, however, awareness of how one best learns, retains or retrieves information, as well as ways to __________ __________ or __________ oneself, may allow the individual to learn new information __________ __________.
physical, social, emotional
Using Fischer’s theory, we would attend to not only the setting in which an individual __________ but the setting in which the knowledge is __________ or __________ as well. This could include the __________, __________, or __________ aspects of the learning environment.
And sleep appears to be critical in __________ information into __________ __________ __________.
cognitive tasks, language, morality
you can’t see me
2. Preoperational Stage. Piaget believed the __________ affected __________ __________, __________ and __________. We see this behavior in simple ways i.e. the child who covers their eyes and says “__________ __________ __________ __________”, or the child who becomes angry if a parent asks them to __________ __________, or __________ so they can see the T.V.
Tertiary Circular Reactions
1. Sensory Motor Stage. Substages of the Sensory Motor Stage include ___________ ___________ ___________ - in which the child experiments with repetitive acts to see what happens and finally evidence of using __________ and __________.
An elderly person who is evaluated by family, friends, social service or medical personnel as lacking in __________ __________, __________ or __________ __________ may be responding to changes in the senses of smell and taste.
rote, already know
The more informed teens are about __________ - the awareness and understanding of one’s thought processes, the better they seem to be in establishing the __________ __________ for learning i.e. what can be learned by __________, what they __________ __________ or need to study, how long they will need to learn __________ versus __________ tasks, how to use __________ – devices or aids to memory and __________ - studying to the point that information comes quickly and effortlessly.
As the individual continues to develop neurologically and continues to have experiences, the brain __________ – takes in new information.
In addition, they are more interested in_____________ or moving stimuli vs static images.
However, these results regarding aging and cognitive ability are based on comparing different cohorts rather than __________ __________. Research also suggest __________ or __________ in tasks may account for some of the differences and there is some evidence that older individuals do better with modes of thinking that are more useful in __________ __________ than the __________.
The Child. Significant changes occur in __________ __________ as a child ages.
Individuals as they age may be less sensitive to __________ and to the __________ of food.
movement from place to place with purpose. (Childhood)
– memory pertaining to skills and tasks
__________ __________ does not just accompany an activity, but it is used as scaffolding, mimicking the process taught by their “mentor”. It helps facilitate thinking and overcoming obstacles.
slower processing, encoding
The Adult. __________ and __________ memory decline the least. In part changes occur in __________ __________ and __________. But even with the changes most older adults can acquire new information.
__________ __________ is a process of looking for the __________ answer rather than a __________ answer and allows for a process of __________ __________.
the basic speech sounds
Adolph and colleagues, critical thinking and evaluation
Later research conducted by___________and_______________ suggested the methodology itself actually accounted for the results. She suggested that infants were wired to show an interest in depth perception and through experience learn how to utilize information about drop offs but did not experience or express fear. This study and other research with infants and children helps us recognize the need for___________ _____________ and _____________.
____________: Infants show preferences in stimuli and how they utilize their sight changes as they develop.
Another idea is __________ __________ in which an individual recognizes that there may be many __________ yet __________ __________. It is a process of looking for the best answer rather than a perfect answer and allows for a process of continual change.
Four main research techniques have allowed remarkable findings suggesting that babies are smarter and more capable than once believed. These four techniques are:
– relatively permanent and unlimited storage
Private speech is used to assist with __________ rather than __________ with others.
long term memory
Information needs to be retrieved from __________ __________ __________ and __________ to successfully solve a problem.
– the idea that one’s thoughts and feelings are unique, either in a negative or positive way.
The Infant: All major senses begin working before birth and appear to have___________ ____________, windows of time when experience is necessary to build optimal sensory ability. It appears that aspects of abilities are innate and mature in a programmed manner over time.
Researchers early on __________ child memory but parent feedback led to the understanding that what was being assessed missed __________ __________.
Infants have a rather adaptive ability to identify __________, to distinguish human from monkey face, Mo’s face from that of a stranger.
As we age our __________ __________, the lowest level of stimulation detected, rises. As loss is a __________ __________ it may be difficult to know when __________ aids are necessary.
not yet mastered
2. Preoperational Stage. This stage is defined by concepts the child has __________ ___________ ___________. The child cannot use logic to combine or transform separate ideas. This lack of cognitive ability is exhibited in tasks, for example, that alter the state of matter in superficial ways. They are unable to utilize the skills of Decentration – the ability to focus on two or more dimensions of a situation, or Reversibility – mentally being able to undo or reverse an action. Through brain growth and experiences in the world the child will build the skills evident in the next stage of development.
This stage is also defined by Egocentrism – seeing the world only through one’s own perspective.
Marchland and Sinnott suggest __________ __________ is beyond formal operational thought.
1. the imaginary audience
2. the personal fable
David Elkind proposed two constructs:
Vygotsky also identified __________ __________, overt speech addressed to the self.
visual cliff, Gibson and Walk
Our assumptions about ability can influence research findings. A famous study called the________ ________, conducted by___________ and __________ suggested that children early on developed depth perception and a fear of falling. For a long time, no one questioned these findings.
In __________ __________ there is __________ in thinking and information leads to more __________ and __________, thinking outside the box.
As __________ and __________ responsivity decline an older individual may need to give up night time and later day time driving as well.
The Infant. Research using __________, __________ __________, ___________, and __________ __________ such as looking or surprise reactions, indicate that even young infants learn.
Somatosensory senses. Changes in __________, __________, __________, _________ may all be impacted by aging and again can impact safety and quality of life. A person may be less secure in walking or have difficulty dressing, may feel __________ or not experience __________ that warns of a problem.
nutrition, physical activity, sleep
steps noted on p 252.
First that the brain is impacted by __________, __________ __________ and __________.
There are some improvements in the __________ __________ in childhood but basically the system is completed by the end of infancy.
__________ __________ is three times as prevalent as vision impairment. Yet there is still a stigma attached to using __________ __________ as an indication of being old and infirm.
swaddling, breast feeding
Infants can ___________ __________, are sensitive to __________ and __________, respond to __________ and can be comforted for painful events with __________ or __________ __________.
areas of expertise
The Adult. Adults tend to function cognitively most effectively in their ________ ________ __________. Familiarity likely makes it easier to attend to and __________ __________, build upon the __________ __________, __________ and __________ information.
higher I.Q. scores
Adults with __________ __________ __________ and adults with more __________ __________ tend to do better on tasks but it also depends upon exposure to the __________ of the tasks. As might be expected individuals do better with __________ ___________.
zone of proximal development
Vygotsky identified the __________ __________ __________ __________ – the place in which a child is able to accomplish, with the support from a more knowledgeable other (__________), more than would be possible on their own.
__________ senses occur anywhere in the body in contrast to those above that occur in a specific sense organ. These include __________, __________, __________, __________ knowing of where the body is and how it moves.
In addition, we can teach __________ __________, finding the motivation or tools to pay attention.
simple problem solving
4. Formal Operational Stage. Piaget saw this stage as occurring during __________, observing the move from __________ __________ __________, to __________ and reasoning using __________ and systematic __________ __________.
children solve problems
Just as we have a lot to learn about memory a lot remains to be learned about how __________ __________ __________.
Our senses are also influenced by our __________.
___________ suggested that learning about the world is a process in which __________ __________ and __________ combine to form a __________ - an organized understanding of an aspect of the world.
Visual Recognition Memory Test
Early memory tasks, as the __________ __________ __________ __________ in which infants and toddlers discriminate between objects they have seen before and __________ __________, actually seem to be good early indicators of __________.
__________ suggested that individuals are __________ __________ in their own development.
Wellman and Gelman
Researchers______________ and ____________ also suggests that infants come into the world with intuitive theories-a basic knowledge of how the world works. They will show surprise if objects do the impossible, i.e. go through a solid wall or float in the air instead of falling.
trace the neural pathway
Overlearning appears to strengthen __________ __________ and make it easier to __________ __________ __________ __________ to the stored information.
________________ ______________: once the subject has developed a learned behavior the stimulus is modified. If the behavior continues the subject did not detect the change, if the behavior does not occur a difference in the stimuli
Primary Circular Reactions
1. Sensory Motor Stage. Substages of the Sensory Motor Stage include __________ __________ __________ - which are repetitive acts using one’s own body
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
class time, studying
_________ __________ __________ __________ __________ studies have shown that when given two goals at the same time, __________ and __________ are more likely to forget details and make __________ __________ more mistakes. Relevant to you might be the negative correlation between multi-tasking during __________ __________ and __________, and student test grades and grade point average.
The Adult. For example, it appears that __________, __________ (where did I learn the info) and __________ (where were you when) memory decline the most.
__________ ___________ is one concept that researchers have found occurs at a much __________ __________ than first proposed by Piaget. Research using the __________ __________, utilizing a surprise reaction to ascertain if a child understands a concept suggests that even a ___________ ___________ has ___________ aspects of object permanence.
The __________ ___________ noted above is another aspect of vision. She suggested that infants were wired to show an interest in __________ __________ and through experience learn how to utilize information about drop offs but did not experience or express fear.
Another theory regarding childhood amnesia suggests that what is __________ to adults is not what was __________ to the child and therefore not __________ and __________. If we knew what was important as a child we could garner more __________.
formal operations stage
Research suggests that only about __________ of college students show mastery of __________ __________ and that __________ of adults never make it to the __________ __________ __________.
David Elkind proposed that the ability to __________ caused Adolescent Egocentrism, __________ _________ of how others view __________.
Dynamic Skill Framework of cognitive development
We will be going into more depth on Piaget’s __________ approach and Vygotsky’s __________ __________ and adding Kurt Fischer’s __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ before we look at each of the age groups.
________________is the interpretation of the data gathered by the senses. Both sensation and ______________ together are necessary to experience the world around us.
Sensation, perception, adolescence
attend, coordinate, motor skills
sensory difficulties, fail tasks
The __________: __________ and __________ skills are more finely tuned in __________. There is an increase in ability to __________ and to __________ senses and __________ ___________. And an increased expectation of the same. Children who may have slipped by with __________ __________, compensating in one way or another, may now begin to __________ __________.
Much of what a child remembers is __________ - information about their own lives. Yet most adults remember __________ about their childhood.
1. Sensory Motor Stage
2. Preoperational Stage
3. Concrete Operational
4. Formal Operational Stage.
Piaget’s four stages are:
conservation of matter
seriality, different perspective
3. Concrete Operational. They now understand __________ __________ __________, __________, __________, __________, __________, and that others can have a __________ __________.
4. Formal Operational Stage. It is during this stage that we observe ___________ and __________ thinking.
Motor milestones, learning to __________, ___________, __________, __________ are developed over time as sensory feedback from activity is incorporated into learning.
__________ proposed that learning about the world is based in neurological wiring but constructed through __________ ___________, ___________ and ___________.
overlapping waves theory
assess the problem
effective, efficient, strategy
Problem solving in children. Robert Siegler suggests, in his __________ __________ __________, that children learn multiple __________ and then later learn how to __________ __________ __________ and select an appropriate __________ to the problem at hand. With experience and familiarity, they become more __________ and __________ at grabbing the appropriate __________.
Newborns also detect __________ ___________. They react by turning away from __________ __________ and can be calmed by __________ ___________ i.e. the smell of mother’s breast milk.