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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (84):
1

Fertilization, implantation, and state or placenta is the ___ period

Zygote

2

At 2 weeks it is called the __ period

Zygote

3

The ___ period is at 6 weeks

Embryo

4

During the __ period the groundwork is laid for all body structures and internal organs

Embryo

5

__ period is at 30 weeks

Fetus

6

The ___ period is the growing and finishing phase

Fetus

7

__ occurs when the blastocyst burrows deep into the uterine lining and ammion membrane encloses the developing organism in protective amniotic fluid

Implantation

8

___ helps maintain the temperature of the prenatal environment

Amniotic fluid

9

What brings the embryos and mothers blood close together?

Placenta

10

The __ is connected to the ___ and delivers blood with nutrients, oxygen, and hormones to the fetus and removes waste products

Umbilical cord, placenta

11

The __ folds over to form the neural tube, or primitive spinal cord

Neural tube

12

The fetus stretches from the ___ to the end of the pregnancy

9th week

13

Prenatal development is divided into ___ equal time periods called ___

3, trimesters

14

During the ___ trimester many organs are well-developed by 20 weeks and most of the brains neurons are in place

Second

15

During the ___ trimester the age viability is between 22-26 weeks and the fetus takes on beginnings of personality

Third

16

what is an environment agent that can cause damage during the prenatal period?

Teratogens

17

Serious defects due to teratogens are most likely to occur during the ___ period

Embryonic period

18

Harm done by teratogens is affected by ___, ___, and ___

Heredity, dose, age

19

___ causes severe limb deformations in embryos

Thalidomide

20

___ was prescribed to prevent miscarriages but caused high rates of cancer and infertility in daughters of mothers who took the drug

Accutane

21

__ can case serious blood flow problems in the baby if used the last 3 months of pregnancy

NSAIDS

22

What medication is linked to an elevated incidence of premature delivery and birth complications.

Antidepressants

23

___ increase the chances of miscarriages, prematurity, blood vessel abnormalities, and asthma and cancer later in life

Tobacco use

24

___ refers to the range of physical, mental, and behavioral outcomes caused by prenatal alcohol exposure

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder

25

__ is distinguished by slow physical growth, 3 facial abnormalities, and brain injury, occurs when women drink heavily

Fetal alcohol syndrome

26

___ exposure can cause miscarriage, underdeveloped brain, physical deformities, and slow physical growth

Radiation

27

Prenatal malnutrition is highest in ___ regions but not limited to

Poverty-stricken

28

When a mother is Rh negative and the infant inherits the Rh positive blood from the father there is a ___

Rh factor incompatibility

29

___ can cause mental retardation, miscarriage, heart damage, and infant death

Rh factor incompatibility

30

What is a concern during pregnancy and can result in preeclampsia, gestational diabetes and c section

Obesity

31

Dilation and effacement lasts an average of __ to __ hours with first birth and __ to __ with later

12-14, 4-6

32

What are the 3 stages of childbirth

Dilation and effacement of the cervix, delivery of baby , delivery of placenta

33

The delivery of the baby stage lasts ___to __ minutes

50 to 20 minutes

34

The placenta delivery follows in __ to __ minutes

5-10 minutes

35

The average newborn is ___ long and ___ pounds

20 inches and 7 1/2 lb

36

What does apgar stand for

Appearance- heart rate
Pulse- reflex irritability
Grimace-muscle tone
Activity-respiratory rate
Respiration

37

___ babies are those who are born 3 weeks or more before the end of the full week 38 week term and weigh less than 5 1/2 lb

Premature

38

Babies at the greatest risk for infant mortality are __ and ___ who are twice as likely to have an infant death in the first year

African Americans, native Americans

39

__ is regular sleep, no eye movement, 8-9 hrs, regular breathing

Non rapid eye movement sleep

40

___ is irregular sleep, occasional stirring, facial grimaces, irregular breathing, 8-9 hrs

Rapid eye movement sleep

41

___ is when the body is inactive, eyes are attentive, 2-3 hrs

Quiet alertness

42

___ is 1-4 hours, irregular breathing

Waking activity and crying

43

What is a term for persistent crying and tends to be high pitched or harsh. Usually ends at 3-6 months

Colic

44

What are the 3 hormones that facilitate caregiving

Oxytocin, prolactin, estrogens

45

What is the best estimate of physical maturity

Skeletal age

46

What are the 2 levels of brain development

Microscopic and cerebral cortex

47

___ is the most complex brain structure and is responsible for highly developed intelligence of humans

Cerebral cortex

48

___ are nerve cells that store and transmit information

Neurons

49

What are tiny gaps where fibers from different neurons come together but do not touch

Synapses

50

___ are chemicals that are released by neurons and cross the synapse

Neurotransmitters

51

What is responsible for 85% of the brains weight and has the greatest number of neurons and synapses

Cerebral cortex

52

What is in charge of controlling body movement, in particular consciousness, inhibition of impulses, and use of reasoning

Pre-frontal cortex

53

The ___ hemisphere of the cerebral cortex is responsible for information processing, language, positive emotion, and verbal

Left

54

The __ hemisphere is in charge for spatial abilities, negative emotion, and holistic integrative processing

Right

55

What is caused by a diet that is low in all of the essential nutrients seen in the first year of life

Marasmus

56

___ is a diet very low in protein and occurs after weaning during ages 1-3

Kwashiorkor

57

What is estimated to effect 21% of children, the child is uncertain of access to enough food for a health active life

Food insecurity

58

What are the 4 milestones of reaching and grasping

Pre-reaching
Ulnar grasping
Transferring object from hand to hand
Pincer grasp

59

What is the understanding that objects continue to exist when out of sight

Object permanence

60

__ is when sights and sounds are represented directly and stored briefly

Sensory register

61

___ is the number of items that can be briefly held in mind while engaging in some effort to manipulate them

Working memory

62

What is the conscious, reflective part of our mental system ensuring that we think purposefully to attain our goals

Central executive

63

What is the improved efficiency and ability to shift focus

Attention

64

What involves operant conditioning and habituation

Memory

65

What is the gradual shift from perceptual to conceptual

Categorization

66

___ is the first categories are based on physical properties

Perceptual development

67

___ is the shift to categories based on common function or behavior

Conceptual development

68

Children are born with ___ containing a set of rules common to all lanuages, which permits children to understand and speak whichever they hear

Language acquisition device

69

Who regards lanuage as a unique human accomplishment that is innate or inborn

Chomsky

70

Who invented the development of temperament in a longitudinal study of children from infancy to adulthood

Chess and Thomas

71

___ theory recognizes the infants emotional tie to the caregiver as an evolved response that promotes survival

Ethnological theory of attachment

72

Who created the ethnological theory of attachment

Bowlby

73

For right handed people language is housed __ whereas left handed people language is house___

Left, shared

74

What 2 hormones does the pituitary gland release

Growth
Thyroid stimulating

75

__ prompts the release of thyroxine which is necessary for normal brain development

Thyroid stimulating hormone

76

__ is the failure to separate own symbolic viewpoints from others

Egocentrism

77

___ is the restructuring inaccurate speech to correct form

Recasts

78

What is the elaborating on children’s speech

Expansions

79

What is a children’s active efforts to construct literacy knowledge through informal experiences

Emergent literacy

80

___ is the order relationships between quantities 14-16 months

Ordinality

81

___ is when counting, last number is the total 3 1/2- 4 yrs

Cardinal it’s

82

___ identified the psychological conflict of the preschool years as initiative vs guilt

Erickson

83

What consists of our judgements about our own worth and the feelings associated with them

Self esteem

84

What is the type of discipline that supports conscience formation by pointing out the effects of the child’s misbehavior on others

Induction