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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (50):
1

The upsetting of homeostasis

Stress

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The ideal level of bodily functions

Homeostasis

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Anything that disrupts the body’s homeostatic balance

Stressor

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Controls the skeletal muscles and is under voluntary control (e.g., movement)

Somatic Nervous System

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Coordinates muscles NOT under voluntary control and acts automatically (e.g., heart rate)

Autonomtic Nervous System

6

Stages of stress

Alarm stage
Resistance stage: body deals with stressors until its natural resources begin to deplete
Exhaustion stage: body’s systems break down and illness or premature death ensue



7

Selye thought there were two types of stress

distress (negative) and eustress (positive)

8

chronic stress begins to wear down the systems

Allostatic load

9

similar to GAS, it suggests that illness may result from interaction of biology and environment

Diathesis-stress model:

10

common patterns to a host of different stressors

Non-specific responses

11

the combination of cognitive, emotional, physiological, and behavioral reactions the organism experiences as it interacts with perceived threats and challenges

General definition of stress

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Primary appraisals: We decide whether an event is:

Harmful: Will you loose something significant?
Threatening: Will it be very demanding and put you at risk for harm?
Challenging: We believe we can grow from dealing with the event.

13

Secondary appraisals:

Can we deal with the event, and how we can cope?

14

make a judgment about the relative significance of the event and evaluate as a threat or challenge

Appraisal

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Factors influencing our appraisals

Duration: Short term vs. long term events
Negative or Positive Valence: Threatening events vs. positive events (e.g., marriage)
Control: Knowing you can control a situation
Predictability: Being aware when a stressor is anticipated
Ambiguous: Not having details about or not understanding an event
Culture: Affects how a stressor is perceived

16

Being part of a group that is not the “norm” either by ethnicity, religion, or race

Minority Status (situational)

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Being treated differently for being part of a minority group

Discrimination

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What is acceptable in one culture (e.g., eye contact) may be seen as rude by other cultures

Cultural Customs

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emphasizes what people do right to maintain health rather than risk and pathogenic factors

Salutogenic model:

20

the degree to which we can make cognitive sense of stimuli we perceive

SOC: Comprehensibility

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our ability to access internal and external coping resources and use them when we need them

SOC: Manageability

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our ability to emotionally make sense of demands and to perceive them as challenges rather than burdens.

SOC: Meaningfulness

23

Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS):

scale that measures life change events, developed by Holmes & Rahe (1967)
-Higher life change scores for 6 months – 1 year mean a person has a greater chance of developing illness

24

Lazarus (1984) developed Hazards and Uplifts Scale:

combines measures for hassles (irritants and pressures) and uplifts (positive encounters and experiences)

25

Physiological Measures of SNS activation such as:

Blood Pressure-systolic and diastolic
Heart Rate
Galvanic skin response

26

two or more role demands are incompatible with another

Role conflict:

27

duties, responsibilities, and performance expectations of the job are not clearly defined by leaders

Role ambiguity:

28

work load is too great and there are insufficient resources to complete tasks

Role overload:

29

Low decision latitude:

having insufficient control or authority over one’s job to autonomously complete job tasks

30

Effort-Reward Imbalance

Proposes that high-cost low-gain work efforts are stressful
Imbalance in reciprocity causes one to experience distress
Threatens one’s sense of mastery and self-efficacy

31

Organizational Injustice Model

unfair and source of stress
Assumes that stress occurs when the organization’s interpersonal transactions, procedures, or outcomes are perceived as unfair

32

Interpersonal Conflict: Three approaches

Raise the tensions, create distance, or engage in some sort of high drama

33

High Drama

For the most part, we are attracted to those who are similar to use in behaviors, beliefs, attitudes, and worldwide views

34

Negative Reciprocity

Attacks and counterattacks
I treat you with hostility, so you respond back negatively so I respond negatively back to that

35

Demand-withdrawal patterns

Demand-withdrawal patterns
ne person makes a demand and the other person gets defensive and then withdrawals rather than resolving the demand

36

Stonewalling

The withdrawing person withholds attention from the demander
Tries to punish by stopping communication and cooperation

37

Negative methods are power and control

Withholding, bullying, manipulation, lying and deception
Basically use punishment for an operant conditioning strategy

38

Heavy Control Communication

Iron Fist is any example
Bullying, blaming, name calling threatening to get a point across

39

AIDS epidemic began in the late

1970's

40

year that signs started to arise

1978- Gay men in the U.S. and Sweden and heterosexuals in Tanzania and Haiti began to show symptoms

1981—CDC received reports of 5 cases of Pneumocystis carinii and 26 cases of Kaposi sarcoma

41

is a retrovirus, an RNA virus that secretes an enzyme that injects its own RNA into DNA inside the cells that it infects.

HIV

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transtheoretical model

pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance

43

Short and long term effects of impacts? Can you OD on it?


You would not be able to smoke them enough to kill yourself on THC.

44

Cancer rates

Increase 1-3, 1 in 4 between ages 60-70

45

Health behaviors: tobacco, diet, exercise, the sun

45% get skin cancer, 15-20 minutes in tanning bed = full day at the beach

46

Coping with Illness: the 5 adjustments

doing daily tasks, no psych disorders, high levels of positive affects, functional status, satisfaction in other areas

47

Immunocompetence

The overall ability of the immune system, at any given time, to defend the body against the harmful effects of foreign agents

48

Global immunosuppression model

Early theory that proposed that stress always suppresses immune responses

49

Angina Pectoris

A condition of extreme chest pain caused by a restriction of the blood supply to the heart

50

Myocardial Infarction

A heart attack; the permanent death of heart tissue in response to an interruption of blood supply