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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (26):
1

explain how all disease occurs at a cellular level

damage to cells

cellular control of damage

cellular repair of damage

2

-trophy

food nutrition

3

(dys)-

abnormal/bad

4

-plasia

formation of new cells

5

aplasia

decreased cell number

6

hyperplasia

increased cell NUMBER in an organ or tissue

7

squamous

scaly

8

karyo-

cell nucleus

9

necro-

death

10

sclero-

hardening

11

example of mild stress

swelling

12

for mild stress - swelling

what would you see at the cellular level

see increased cytoplasmic volume from impaired regulation of salt

13

in swelling, what could be reasons why there is an increased cytoplasmic volume from impaired regulation of salt

damage to PM
- increase Na+ flux into cell
- physical, oxidative stress, immunological

- damage to Na/K pump (chemical)

- block in ATP synthesis (O2 deprivation)

14

explain necrosis

Cell lysis:

swelling of ER, loss of ribosomes

lysosome ruptures (released digestive enzymes chew up healthy cells)

- nuclear condensation (lyses)

- mitochondria lyse (produce ROS)

15

atrophy

decrease in size and function of cell or organ

cell shuts down to save energy, can shrink in volume as well

16

how can atrophy occur

- Decreased use (skeletal muscle and bed rest)
- Decreased oxygen supply (ischemia and heart disease)
- Decreased endocrine function or loss of neurotransmitters
- Persistent injury
- Aging

17

hypertrophy

increase in size and function of a cell or organ

18

when does hypertrophy occur

in response to increased bodily needs (hormones increase breast size - pregnancy)

increased functional demand (exercise increases muscle size)

19

what can cause hyperplasia

- hormones (menstrual cycle)
- increased functional demand (increased RBC at altitudes)
- persistent cell injury

20

metaplasia

conversion of one differentiated cell type to another

21

adaptive mechanism to persistent cell injury (e.g. glandular to squamous epithelium)

metaplasia

22

what can be a step in formation of a tumor

metaplasia

23

dysplasia

alteration in size, shape, and orientation of the cellular components of a tissue

24

if there is too great an accumulation in intracellular storage what things can lead to damage and swelling?

- fat (liver in diabetes and alcoholism)
- glycogen (liver in diabetes)
- iron (protein hemosiderin accumulates in cells)
- lipofuscin ("wear and tear" pigment, found in neurons and cardiac myocytes, accumulates with age)
- melanin

25

mechanism of intracellular accumulations

1. abnormal metabolism

2. mutations causing alterations in protein folding and transport

3. deficiency of critical enzymes that prevent breakdown of substrates that accumulate in lysosomes

4. inability to degrade phagocytosed particles

26

how can ROS disrupt a membrane: membrane lipid peroxidation

O2-, H2O2, OH- (single unpaired electrons = radicles)

radicals go and attack double bonds on the unsaturations of fatty acid tails
- puts polar groups in the hydrophobic environment
- polar groups push the lipids apart
- membrane is more permeable
- increased swelling