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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (41):
1

What does the "photo" part of photosynthesis produce?

NADPH and ATP

2

What does the "photo" part of photosynthesis release?

O2

3

The Light Reaction occurs where?

Thylakoids and during the day

4

The Light Reaction...

converts light energy into chemical energy

5

What are the three phases of the calvin cycle?

Carbon fixation, reduction, regeneration of CO2 acceptor.

6

What goes into the Calvin Cycle?

9 ATP
6 NADPH
3 CO2

7

What comes out of the Calvin cycle

6 NADH+
9 ADP
6 G3P

8

How do the G3P that come out of the Calvin cycle split out?

5 recycle back to RuBP and only 1 goes toward builing G3P aka a 3 carbon sugar

9

What does the Calvin Cycle do?

Reduces CO2 to sugar

10

Calvin cycle is...

anabolic aka requires energy input

11

Where does calvin cycle occur?

In the STROMA of the thylakoid, and not light dependent.

12

Since glucose is a 6 carbon sugar, how many times must we go through the calvin cycle?

Twice

13

What goes into the light reaction?

Light energy, water, ADP and NADP

14

What comes out of the light reaction?

ATP, NADPH, and O2

15

What do competitive inhibitors bind to?

To the active site of an enzyme

16

What do noncompetitive inhibitors bind to?

away from active site of enzyme

17

What process makes it possible for ATP to be considered a renewable process?

ATP can be regenerated by the addition of a phosphate group to ADP

18

What is the relationship between anabolic and catabolic pathways?

Anabolic synthesize more complex organic molecules using energy derived FROM catabolic

19

What is energy coupling?

eXergonic reactions drive eNDergonic reactions

20

Exergonic reaction ___ free energy

releases

21

Endergonic reaction ___ free energy

absorbs

22

Endergonic reaction ___ free energy

absorbs

23

The energy in an ATP molecule is released through ___

hydrolysis of one of the phosphate groups

24

how do enzymes speed up the rate of reaction

without chaning the delta G for the reaction

25

how do enzymes speed up the rate of reaction

without changing the delta G for the reaction

26

What can and can't enzymes do?

CAN lower activation energy
CAN'T change equilibrium point b/c they cannot change net energy output

27

How does enzyme activity affect pH?

high or low pH may disrupt hydrogen bonding or ionic interactions and thus change the shape of the active site

28

The hydrolysis of ATP drives cellular work by...

releasing free energy that can be couples to other reactions

29

The hydrolysis of ATP drives cellular work by...

releasing free energy that can be couples to other reactions

30

What is the total production of ATP, NADH, and FADH2 in the citric acid cycle from one molecule of glucose?

Two ATP, six NADH, and two FADH2

31

Which metabolic pathway produces the most ATP, per glucose molecule metabolized, during cellular respiration?

The electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation

32

In which process is glucose oxidized to form two molecules of pyruvate?

Glycolysis

33

In the overall process of glycolysis and cellular respiration, __________ is oxidized and __________ is reduced.

glucose ; oxygen

34

The function of cellular respiration is to

extract usable energy from glucose

35

A small amount of ATP is made in glycolysis by which process?

Transfer of a phosphate group from a fragment of glucose to ADP by substrate-level phosphorylation

36

Which metabolic pathway is common to both fermentation and cellular respiration of a glucose molecule?

Glycolysis

37

In what molecule(s) is the majority of the chemical energy from pyruvate transferred during the citric acid cycle?

NADH and FADH2

38

Most of the NADH that delivers electrons to the electron transport chain comes from which of the following processes?

The citric acid cycle

39

How does chemiosmosis produce ATP?

H+ flows across the inner mitochondrial membrane through the enzyme ATP synthase.

40

Fermentation by itself produces no ATP but keeps glycolysis going, which produces a small amount of ATP. How does fermentation do this?

Fermentation oxidizes NADH to NAD+, which facilitates the production of ATP in glycolysis.


41

Where does the Calvin cycle of photosynthesis occur?

stRoma