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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (38):

What are the three major communications systems of the human body

1. Nervous System
2. Immune System
3. Endocrine System


Provide 2 examples that would indicate that you understand what is meant by the phrase "signaling molecule operate over varying distance."

1. Direct Haptic (Touch)-mediated Signaling -- Cells communicate with other cells that they are in direct contact with

2. Soluble Signaling-- Cell communicates with itself, nearby cells or even cells in different tissue or a different organ.

Haptic- Signaling cell touching adjacent target cell- direct contact (Touching)
Paracrine signaling- Synapse between neurons- secretory cells secretee the ligands, and the target(adjacent) cells within the secretion vicinity have their receptors filled. (Short)
Endocrine- Hormones secreted by glands traveling through the blood system (long) Ligands secreted by the secretory cells and then carried through the bloodstream to the target cells’ receptors


What is meant by a ligand / recepotor interaction?

The binding of the signaling molecule to a specific receptor protein on/in a cell. Receptor then transmit a signal into cell.


Describe 2 types of cellular receptors and how they are different in terms of their role as effectors

1) Ligand Gated ion Channels: Ion channel open or closes when LIgand binds, ex. Acetylcholine receptor Glycine receptor

2)G-protein coupled receptors: Acitivates a G-protein which then can activate or inhibit other enzymes in the membrane or cell ex. Indirectly gated ion channels-glucagon receptors

3) Receptor Tyrosine Kinases--Receptor components combine and phosphorylate each other providing energy for other enzymes ex insulin receptor

4) Enzyme LInked Receptors-- When ligand binds, receptor components combine and bind with other enzymes (usually activating or deactivating the enzyme) ex. Cytokine Receptors.


Provide a diagram that shows understanding of the concept of agonist and antagonist work from a structural standpoint


Agonist: active site of similar shape to ligand so binds to the receptor to produce the same effect

Antagonist Close enough to ligand that it binds but does not produce an effect. Takes up receptor space and prevents the ligand from binding.


Describe the 2 arms of the nervous sytem

Central-- Brain and Spinal Cord

Peripheral-- Everything Else

2 Way communication
-From CNS to peripheral
-From Peripheral to CNS


Draw and label the common structures found in a neuron

Dendrite: where input is received

Cell Body: Where multiple inputs are integrated together

Axon: Carries signal to Target

Axon Terminal: Neurotransmitters are released to next neuron


Provide a diagram of a typical neuron-neuron synapse

Diagram of Synapse


What is meant by "immune system"

A system of organs, glands, cells and molecules that protects against disease and aids in wound healing.


What are the major components of the innate immune system?

Non specific Immunity
-Physical Barriers (Skin/Mucous membranes)
-Proteins in the blood called complement
-Phagocytic cells including white blood cells that tissue macrophages


What are the major components of the adaptive immune system

Specific Immunity
-Collects and stores info from previous infections for stronger response next time (B cells)
-Targets specific pathogens that you have been exposed to before using
--Antibodies (soluble Protein)
-Recruits Innate cells to assist in killing


What is the complement sytem and what are its 3 major purposes?

System of small molecules that aid in innate immune system.
1) Identification of pathogens
2) Direct killing of Pathogens
3) Recruitment of inflammatory cells

Enzymatic cascade involving about 30 glycoproteins present in blood plasma. as well as cell surface receptors, antiboides made by B cells


Draw a schematic of an antibody and label its parts

Antigen Binding Sites
Hinge Region


What is the primary purpose of an antibody?

Binds to specific targets, signaling which cells to kill.


Describe one way that we can use antibodies as a bioengineer?

Immunohistochemistry-- use antibodies to help see things inside of people/cells

Transplant antibodies to those who have weaker immune function


Provide a diagram that shows you understand the concept of homeostatic regulation


Receptor>Control center> Effector I.e.

too much sugar, insulin secreting cells to release insulin, cells take up glucose, glucose stored as glycogen.

below level, glucagon is released liver breaks down glycogen and releases glucose into blood.


What is a hormone?

Soluble signal, generally travels a long distance via blood. Slower to initiate, more prolonged impact


What is meant by the islets of Langerhans?

Hormone producing part of pancreas. Alpha-glucagon. Beta-insulin


Provide a diagram showing the reciprocal role of insulin and glucagon in regulating glucose homeostasis

too much sugar, insulin secreting cells to release insulin, cells take up glucose, glucose stored as glycogen.

below level, glucagon is released liver breaks down glycogen and releases glucose into blood.


Compare and contrast Type I and Type II diabetes

Type 1 is genetic. Insulin insufficiency, lack of Beta cells. autoimmune destruction. caused by auto antibodies

Type 2 is usually caused by unhealthy lifestyle, body begins to not respond to insulin (resistant)


Describe how diabetes is commonly treated today?

Type 1: insulin therapy, organ/cell transplant

Type 2: diet and exercise, anti-diabetic drugs, insulin therapy


Describe how cell therapy is being used to hopefully treat type 1 diabetes

Patients skin cells are first converted to stem cells and then to beta cells followed by infusion into patient. Basically, we grow beta cells for the person and place them in their pancreas.


Describe how you could create a device to provide real time measurement of blood glucose

see Closed feedback systems:
Sensor, to provide realtime glucose monitoring
Infusion pump to provide insulin as needed,
would provide constant control of blood gluose levls.


List 4 major activities of human digestive system and describe what they involve

1)Motility: movement of the GI tract that mix contents and propel them along

2) Secretion-glands release water and enzymes into the GI tract

3) Digestion-mechanical, enzymatic and hydrolytic breakdown of ingested biopolymers molecules into monomers

4)Absorption-process and absorb nutrient into the blood stream.


Describe the general organization of the human digestive tract and briefly describe what each part does

MOUTH: mechanical processing, moistening, mixing
PHARYNX: muscular propulsion of materials into esph.
ESOPHAGUS: transport of materials to stomach
STOMACH:acid and enzymatic chemical breakdown of material. Mechanical processing through muscular contractions
SMALL INTESTINE: enzymatic digestion and absorption of water, organic molecules, vitamins and ions.
LARGE INTESTINE: Dehydration and compaction of indigestible materials in preparation for elimination


What the the 4 major glandular organs associated with the human digestive system

1 Live
-secretion of bile, storage of nutrients
2 Gallbladder
-storage and concentration of bile
3 Pancreas
-Exocrine cells secrete buffers and digestive enzymes; endocrine cells secrete hormones
4 Salivary Glands
-Secretion of lubricating fluid containing enzymes that break down carbohydrates


Describe the organization of the layers of the GI tract. Include the 4 layers

1 Mucosa
-Epithelial layer, lymphoid rich, longitudinal muscle fibers
2 Submucosa
-blood vessels, lymphoid vessels
3 Muscularis Propria
-Inner layer of circular muscle fibers, outer layer of longitudinal muscle fibers
4 Serosa
-outer connective tissue


What is meant by the term peristalsis? Provide a simple diagram that shows how it works

Propels materalalong the length of the digestive tract, wave like motion, strong enough that humans can swallow while upside down.


Where does the bulk of nutrient absorption occur? How is this part of the GI tract organized to facilitate this function?

Small Intestine. Composed of Duodenum, Jejunum, Illeum
Nutrient absorption happens at the intestinal wall where nutrients are abosorbed into blood capillaries and lymph vessels


What is a gastric band? How does it help a person reduce their weight? What are common complications with this device?

Saline filled silicone band that loops around the stomach. Creates small stomach pouch above the band. The full sensors in your stomach are near the top so filling this small pouch induces a sense of fullness.

Common complications include infection, tissue erosion, internal bleeding and stomach obstruction


What is meant by metabolism? explain why we need oxygen

Metabolism: a generic term for all the chemical reactions that break down nutrients to provide energy and the monomers for synthesis to replace damaged or aging cell parts needed to react to homeostatic demands.


What is meant by cellular respiration? Where does it take place in somatic cells?

Cells extract energy from carbohydrates, fat or protein but prefer glucose. OCCURS IN MITOCHONDRIA(Krebs/E transport train) AND CYTOPLASM(glycolysis).


ATP is power currency of cell. Provide 4 different examples of how it is used by living cells

ATP is used for
1) biosynthesis
2) Chemical Activation
3)Membrane Transport
4) Cytoplasmic Transportation
5) Cell motility/contraction


Describe the organization of the respiratory airways. How do the conducting airways differ from the respiratory portion?

Mouth/nasal passage
Lung (aveoli/Bronchi/)



Respiratory portion can expand and contract, the conducting airways are rigid. No gas exchange occurs


Draw a diagram that shows the whole process of Carbon Dioxide exchange from cells of bodily tissues to the alveolus in the lung

Don't forget Cl-


How does hemoglobin function to transport oxygen? In your answer describe its structure and draw a graph to show the relationship between Oxygen saturation and PO2 (mmHG)

PO2 graph. remember at 80% heme saturation @ 40 resing cell P02

4 hemes per globulin, each heme carrys 1 O2. Hemoglobin is found in blood and transports O2 to skeletal muscle.


What is exracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation? Provide a simple schematic for such a system. What problems would you expect with this type of system.


It's a process of oxygenating blood outside of the body for people who don't have good lung function. Some important components of blood, especially immune system stuff, gets caught up in the filters and never returns to the body. People have a weaker immune system.


Describe the role Bile plays in digestion

Bile: important lipid of digestion. Helps break down fat. Breaks it down into smaller pieces, coats with amphiphilic coating. allows fat to move through water better.