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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (38):
1

Information that can be presented to different senses, such as duration, rate and intensity

Amodal Information

2

Processes that determine which information will be processed further by an individual

Attention

3

The quietest sound that a person can hear

Auditory Threshold

4

Specialized neurons in the back of the eye that detect the wavelength of light and, therefore, lead to perception of color

Cones

5

Distinguishing and mastering individual motions

Differentiation

6

A theory that views development as involving many distinct skills that are organized and reorganized over time to meet demands of specific tasks

Dynamic Systems Theory

7

Motor skills associated with grasping, holding and manipulating objects

Fine-Motor Skills

8

Becoming unresponsive to a stimulus that is presented repeatedly

Habituation

9

Linking individual motions into a coherent, coordinated whole

Integration

10

A perceptual cue to depth based on the fact that nearby objects partially obscure more distant objects

Interposition

11

A view, proposed by Barrack and Lickliter, that the infants perceptual system is particularly attuned to amodal information that is presented to multiple sensory modes

Intersensory Redundancy Theory

12

Depth cues based on motion, such as visual expansion and motion parallax

Kinetic Cues

13

A cue to depth perception based on the fact that parallel lines come together at a single point in the distance

Linear Perspective

14

The ability to move around in the world

Locomotion

15

A kinetic depth cue in which nearby moving objects move across a person’s visual field faster than distant objects

Motion Parallax

16

Coordinated movements of the muscles and limbs

Motor Skills

17

Depth cues like those used by artists to convey depth in drawings an paintings; examples include linear perspective and interposition

Pictorial Cues

18

A perceptual cue to depth based on the fact that nearby objects look larger than objects in the distance

Relative Size

19

A perceptual cue to depth based on the fact that, when a person views an object, the retinal images in the left and right eyes differ

Retinal Disparity

20

The means by which the nervous system receives, selects, modifies and organization from the world

Sensory and Perceptual Processes

21

The realization that an object’s actual size remains the same despite sizes in the size of its retinal image

Size Constancy

22

A perceptual cue to depth based on the fact that the texture of objects is coarse but distant for nearby objects but finer and less distinct for distant objects

Texture Gradient

23

A young child who has just learned to walk

Toddlers

24

The smallest pattern that one can distinguish reliably

Visual Acuity

25

A glass-covered platform that appears to have a “shallow” side and “deep” side; used to study infants’ depth perception

Visual Cliff

26

A kinetic depth cue in which approaching objects fill an ever-greater proportion of the retina

Visual Expansion

27

According to Piaget, changing existing knowledge based on new knowledge

Accommodation

28

A phenomenon, common in preschool children, in which they attribute life and lifelike properties to inanimate objects

Animism

29

According to Piaget, taking in information that is compatible with what one already knows

Assimilation

30

Cognitive activities that require virtually no effort

Automatic Processes

31

The component of the information-processing system, analogous to a computer’s operating system, that coordinates the activities of the system

Central Executive

32

Narrowly focused thinking characteristic of Piaget’s pre operational stage

Centration

33

The third of Piaget’s stages, from approximately 7 to 11 years, in which children first use mental operations to solve problems and to reason

Concrete Operational Stage

34

The view, associated with Piaget, that children are active participants in their own development who systematically construct ever-more-sophisticated understandings of their world

Constructivism

35

The view that infants are born with rudimentary knowledge of the world that is elaborated based on children’s experiences

Core-Knowledge Theories

36

Drawing conclusions from facts; characteristic of formal operational thought

Deductive Reasoning

37

Difficulty in seeing the world from another’s point of view; typical of children in Piaget’s pre operational stage

Egocentrism

38

According to Piaget, the process by which children reorganize their schemes and, in the process, move to the next developmental stage

Equilibration