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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (80):
1

Who is Amun Ra?

Sun God
Primary god of the Egyptians (deity claimed by the royal family)

2

Temple at Karnak architecture

Lion sphinxes line up (could be real)
Multiple gates with tiered status entry points

3

Who is the primary god of the Egyptians?

the Pharaoh (deity- son of son god)

4

What does the term "hypostyle" mean?

Greek for lots of columns

5

Where is Hypostyle Hall located?

Great Temple of Amun at Karnak, Egypt

6

Architecture of Hypostyle Hall

134 columns are still standing today
stone blocks are stacked on top of each other
symbolize upper/lower egypt

7

What does the term "clerestory" mean?

grills that let air and sunlight in on top of center aisle

8

Who created the Funery complex of Djoser?

Imhotep (first known artist)

9

Where is the Funery Complex of Djoser located?

Saqqara, Egypt

10

What does a "necropolis" mean?

City of the dead

11

What does the funerary complex of djoser say about Djoser?

He is important
He has an entire complex dedicated to his afterlife
Fully equipped
Buildings were filled with rubble and false entrances were created to discourage robbers
Stepped pyramid goes up to sun god
Has a central mastaba

12

What does the term "ka" mean?

A soul that stays behind on earth after a body dies

13

What are shabti figures?

slave figurines that work for the pharaoh during the afterlife

14

How many generic workers were there for King Tut?

365 (one for each day)

15

How many overseers were there for King Tut?

36 overseers
(3 for each month)

16

How many directors were there for King Tut?

12 directors (1 for each month)

17

What did Ancient China look like back then?

made up of warring factions
conquered by a minor province (Qin) to make up the first Chinese empire.

18

What did the first empire of China look like?

Embraced new tech (crossbow)
Standardized weights, measures, etc.
brutal and cruel
interested in immortality

19

What is legalism?

Groups are responsible for things and having them inform each other
Strict behavior guides

20

What does the Tumulus for the Tomb of the First Emperor of Qin look like?

Hill that covers the emperor's tomb
Buried underground
Pits of terracotta soldiers currently being excavated

21

Why are many of the weapons and statues smashed?

The pits were raided shortly after the emperor's death and there was a political upheaval
They overthrew the emperor's successor

22

What do the terracotta figures look like?

Figures are unique
Immense attention to detail
Show rank, face shape, hairstyle
Bodies are more standard
Coil forms
Hands were made from molds
Originally painted
Statues done in the round
Included horses and carriages

23

What is the Kneeling Archer?

An example of a terracotta soldier from earthenware

24

Where is the Kneeling Archer from?

Tomb of the First Emperor Qin

25

What does the Kneeling Archer look like?

Individual hairs
Pattern on the bottom of sandals

26

What is a characteristic of Aegean Art?

seafarers
marble
cyclades (sub culture)

27

What are the cycladic figures made of?

marble, range in size from a few inches to a few feet

28

Where are cycladic figures usually found?

in tombs

29

What do the cycladic figures look like?

often portray women
Also thought to be made by women
Abstract, clean lines, polished
Originally painted (facial features and tattoo like decorations)
Original purpose unknown

30

What is the Male Harp player made of?

marble, same style as the cycladic figurine

31

What does the male harp payer look like?

abstract forms, simple, stylized, cylindrical shapes, play doh, dynamic pose

32

Where was the male harp player found?

in tombs, not limited to the upper class

33

Describe Minoa

Island of Crete
Biggest island
Thought to be where King Minos lived
Bulls and snakes

34

What is the Snake Goddess made out of?

Faience (glossy ceramic)

35

What was the Snake Goddess known for?

A feminist symbol
Could be a goddess? purpose is unkown

36

What does the Snake Goddess look like?

powerful posture
dressed in Minoan fashion
Cat on head
holding snakes
symbolic garments- maybe a priestesss
eagles
sized for portability
tiny waist
exposed bosom
wide hips
elongated, stretched figure

37

How was the Palace Complex of Knossos, Crete, reconstructed?

wooden columns were painted red and black
Concrete used
Large, sprawling complex
decorated with frescoes and sea motifs

38

How did the Palace Complex of Knossos, Crete influence other cultures?

influenced the Greek myth of the labyrinth and the minotaur
less hierarchy
more open, less restricted areas, less directed traffic
connective walkways

39

What is the bull jumping created out of?

fresco (plaster painting)

40

what is the style of the bull painting?

less militaristic, more athletic
religious ritual, coming of age ceremony
no heiratic scale
instead uses color to draw attention
could indicate gender/team sport
bordered by an ocean motif
flat, 2d figures
abstract, simplified
elongated
floatin

41

How would you describe Mycenae?

mainland Greece (city state)
burial practices similar to the Egyptians
Grave goods
Funerary masks
Conquered Crete
Set in a strategic location
Limited access, set against a cliff, walls and gates
had the high ground

42

What is the Lion Gate?

On the Citadel at Mycenae
Stylized relief
1 of 2 entrances into the city

43

What is a megalith?

big rock

44

What is the Lion Gate's purpose?

intimidation tactics
restrict access
display strength
reminder that they conquered crete
functional/frightening
same technique used in hallways and for tombs (domes)

45

What is the myth that the Lion Gate is created upon?

Cyclopses after the Mycenaens
Lions are standing on either side of a minoan column

46

What is the Diplyon Krater?

A giant vase

47

Where is the Diplyon Krater from?

Ancient Greece

48

Where is the Lion Gate from?

Mycenae

49

Where is the Bull Jumping from?

Minoans

50

Where is the Reconstruction of Palace of Knossos complex from?

Minoans

51

Where is the Snake Goddess from?

Minoans

52

Where are the cycladic figures/male harp figure from?

Minoans

53

What does krater mean?

The shape of the vase

54

What is the Dipylon Krater made out of?

Terracotta

55

What is the Dipylon Krater used for?

grave marker

56

What does the Dipylon Krater look like?

Decorated by shapes
Divided into registers
Depicts a funerary procession
Man lying on a funerary pyre
Figures mourning
Hands over head, wailing/mourtning
Hourglass body shapes
Egyptian influence-profile

57

What is the Palace of Knossos from?

Minoa

58

What happened to the Palace of Knossos?

It was damaged and another palace was built on top of it
First palace contained numerous storage areas
4 entrances (grand, narrow, fresco, lead to central court)

59

Who was the first emperor of China?

Qin Hoang

60

How many army pits were there?

3

61

What is the writing on Res Gestae about?

Written by the emperor Augustus
Inscribed on the Temple of Rome and Augustus
Records the actions of Augustus' life
At 19, he raised an army and was elected consul

62

What is Trajan's column?

Over Trajan's forum
It depicts thousands of Romans and Dacians in action in 155 scenes
Most distinctive monumental sculptures to have survived the fall of Rome

63

What does Trajan's column emphasize?

Rome's vast empire

64

What is a fresco?

plaster painting

65

What is a corbel arch?

an arch-like construction method that uses the architectural technique of corbeling to span a space or void in a structure, such as an entranceway in a wall or as the span of a bridge

66

What is a metope?

A metope is a square piece of art that fills the space between two triglyphs in a Doric frieze, which is above the architrave of a building of the Doric order.

67

who created the Parthenon?

Kallikrates and Iktinos

68

What is the Parthenon created out of?

White marble

69

What is the Parthenon named after?

Virgina Athena

70

What is a pediment?

Triangle shaped roof

71

What is a stereobate?

Raised on a platform (stairs)

72

What is a peristyle?

When columns go all the way around

73

What is doric?

the oldest order style

74

What is inside the parthenon?

A 40 ft. sculpture of Athena

75

How did the Greeks worship Athena?

They worshipped outside of her "hourse"

76

What is Lapith Fighting a Centaur?

Best preserved metope from Greece

77

What is Lapith Fighting a Centaur based on?

A mythological story in which the Centaur kidnaps bride and a battle ensues

78

Which ones is the Lapith?

Human creature

79

Where did Lappith and Centaur come from?

same god

80

What are the formal qualities of lapith fighting a centaur?

Relief, very deep (high relief), influenced by Assyrian culture, on the Parthenon