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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (248):
1

organizational environment

All formal organizations operate in an __________ __________, which is influenced by
• technology
• political and economic trends
• current events
• population patterns
• other organizations

2

status set

– occupying more than one status at a time.

3

A FORMAL ORGANIZATION

- LARGE SECONDARY GROUP ORGANIZED TO ACHIEVE ITS GOAL EFFICIENTLY. ATMOSPHERE IS PLANNED AND IMPERSONAL.

4

Front

Back Stage

Dramaturgical Analysis: __________ and __________ __________ behaviors often contradict one another.

5

hate crime

a criminal act against a person or a person’s property by an o ender motivated by racial or other bias

6

criminal recidivism

later offenses by people previously convicted of crimes

7

LABELING

THE SYMBOLIC-INTERACTION APPROACH TO DEVIANCE: __________

8

tradition

behavior, values, and beliefs passed from generation to generation

9

Labeling theory

the idea that deviance and conformity result not so much from what people do as from how others respond to those actions

10

serious

bystanders

African American, Latino

Research suggests that police are more likely to make an arrest if the offense is __________, if ___________ are present, or if the suspect is __________ ___________ or __________.

11

deterrence

the attempt to discourage criminality through the use of punishment

12

reference groups

Individuals use __________ __________—including both in-groups and out-groups—to form attitudes and make evaluations.

13

GROUP THINK

IRVING L. JANIS
“__________ __________” - THE TENDENCY OF GROUP MEMBERS TO CONFORM TO A NARROW VIEW OF THE SAME ISSU

14

bureaucratic ritualism

a focus on rules and regulations to the point of undermining an organization’s goals

15

Primary Deviance

Deviance that does not effect the person’s self-concept.

16

Status

is a social position that is part of our social identity and that defines our relationships to others.

17

Groupthink

The Leader seeks consensus.

18

Tact

Dramaturgical Analysis: __________ - used to help the person “save face.”

19

in-group

a social group toward which a member feels respect and loyalty

20

social interaction

the process by which people act and react in relation to others

21

AUTHORITARIAN LEADERSHIP STYLE

– MAINTAINS POWER; FOCUS ON THE COMPLETION OF TASKS.

22

Thomas theorem

W. I. Thomas’s claim that situations defined as real are real in their consequences

23

social groups

are two or more people who identify with and interact with one another.

24

social-conflict theory

powerful members

capitalist society

Based on Karl Marx’s ideas, __________ __________ __________ holds that laws and other norms operate to protect the interests of __________ ___________ of any society. In a __________ __________, law operates to support the capitalist economy.

25

Deviance

Person is seen as an outsider.

26

mental escape

Overall humor provides a __________ __________ when times may be unpleasant.

27

status

a social position that a person holds

28

The Thomas Theorem

Situations that are defined as real
become real in their consequences.

29

Rebellion

-rejects the goals and the means, and desires to overthrow current society and bring in a new world order.

30

groupthink

the tendency of group members to conform, resulting in a narrow view of some issue

31

Role exit

-when a person leaves a role; may involve learning new social skills (newly divorced).

32

organizational efficiency

collective orientation

More open, flexible organizations
• In the 1960s, Rosabeth Moss Kanter proposed that opening up organizations for all employees, especially women and other minorities, increased ___________ __________.
• In the 1980s, global competition drew attention to the Japanese work organization’s __________ __________.

33

Norms

laws

Social Conflict theorists believe that __________ and __________ reflect the interests of the rich and powerful (look at capitalism).

34

networks

are relational webs that link people with little common identity and limited interaction. Being “well connected” in networks is a valuable type of social capital.

35

social control

attempts by society to regulate people’s thoughts and behavior

36

Crowd

Very loosely formed group

37

Robert Morton’s Strain Theory

1. Conformist

2. Ritualism

3. Retreatism

4. Innovator

5. Rebellion

38

Role conflict

results from tension among roles linked to two or more statuses (for example, a woman who juggles her responsibilities as a mother and a corporate CEO).

39

Ethnomethodology

__________ is a strategy to reveal the assumptions people have about their social world.
• We can expose these assumptions by intentionally breaking the “rules” of social interaction and observing the reactions of other people.

40

White-collar crime

crime committed by people of high social position in the course of their occupations

41

LAISSEZ-FAIRE LEADERSHIP STYLE

- “HANDS OFF – LETS THE GROUP FUNCTION ON ITS OWN.

42

crimes against property

crimes that involve theft of property belonging to others; also known as property crimes

43

Ritualism

– rejects the goals, but participates ritualistically in the socially approved means.

44

personal discretion

Police use __________ __________ in deciding whether and how to handle a situation.

45

Groupthink

Members are discouraged from speaking freely.

46

Groupthink

A poor policy recommendation or bad decision is made.

47

enforce the law.

determine guilt or innocence.

THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM

Police –

Courts –

48

community-based corrections

correctional programs operating within society at large rather than behind prison walls

49

Dramaturgical analysis

- the investigation of social interaction in terms of theatrical performances.

50

plea bargaining

a legal negotiation in which a prosecutor reduces a charge in exchange for a defendant’s guilty plea

51

● To “get the joke”, you must understand the two
realities.
● Gives person the feeling of “insider status.”

The Dynamics of Humor

52

Smiling

as a way to please another, is more commonly done by women.

53

Psychological theories

focus on individual abnormality and see deviance as the result of “unsuccessful socialization.”

54

crimes against property

(property crime) include burglary, larceny-theft, and arson.

55

normative organizations

have goals people consider worthwhile (examples include voluntary associations such as the PTA).

56

dyad

triad

dyad

Georg Simmel described the __________ as intense but unstable; the __________, he said, is more stable but can dissolve into a __________ by excluding one member.

57

Authoritarian leadership

democratic leadership

laissez-faire leadership

__________ __________ is a “take charge” style that demands obedience; __________ __________ includes everyone in decision making; __________ __________ lets the group function mostly on its own.

58

COERCIVE ORGANIZATIONS

– forces membership.

59

triad

a social group with three members

60

Deviance

behavior or physical appearance that violates the norms/expectations of a group/society in general.

61

a primary group

is small, personal, and lasting (examples include family and close friends).

62

societal protection

rendering an offender incapable of further offenses temporarily through imprisonment or permanently by execution

63

Secondary Deviance

– repeated violation of a norm that results in deviant identity.

64

role set

- a number of roles attached to a single status.

65

Conformist

– accepts the culturally approved goals and the socially acceptable means.

66

courts

rely on an adversarial process in which attorneys— one representing the defendant and one representing the state—present their cases in the presence of a judge who monitors legal procedures.

67

● Varies from culture to culture.
● Some jokes are considered “taboo.”

Topics of humor

68

fair

just

Social Conflict theorists believe that people don’t question whether laws are __________ or __________.

69

Caesare Lombroso

__________ __________ (1835-1909) – physical appearance as a determinant.

70

Democratic

Expressive leaders tend to be ___________

71

INSTRUMENTAL GROUP LEADERSHIP

“GETS THINGS DONE”- EMPHASIZES THE COMPLETION OF TASKS.

72

Expressive leadership

focuses on a group’s well-being.

73

expressive leadership

group leadership that focuses on the group’s well-being

74

instrumental leadership

focuses on completing tasks.

75

Personality factors

__________ __________:
Walter Reckless and Simon Dinitz (1967) - “Containment Theory” – deviant impulses contained by presence of strong superego (conscience).

76

rationality

a way of thinking that emphasizes deliberate, matter-of-fact calculation of the most efficient way to accomplish a particular task

77

Gender

affects performances because men typically have greater social power than women. Gender differences involve demeanor, use of space, and smiling, staring, and touching.

78

• Venting.....
• Diffuses anger.
• challenges ideas /explore alternatives.
• Promotes social change.
• Has health benefits.

Functions of humor (Structural Functionalism)-

79

corporate crime

refers to illegal actions by a corporation or people acting on its behalf. Although corporate crimes cause considerable public harm, most cases of corporate crime go unpunished.

80

DYAD

GROUP SIZE
- 2 MEMBERS.

81

UTILITARIAN ORGANIZATION

– offers income & personal freedom; environment still coercive.

82

DEMOCRATIC LEADERSHIP STYLE

– INCLUDES EVERYONE IN DECISIONS.

83

Social structure

refers to social patterns that guide our behavior in everyday life. The building blocks of social structure are status and role.

84

plea bargaining

In practice, U.S. courts resolve most cases through __________ __________. Though efficient, this method puts less powerful people at a disadvantage.

85

Social group

Two or more people and interact with one another

86

idealization

__________ of performances means we try to convince others that our actions reflect ideal culture rather than selfish motives.

87

White-collar offenses

are committed by people of high social position as part of their jobs. Sutherland claimed that such offenses are rarely prosecuted and are most likely to end up in civil rather than criminal court.

88

rehabilitation

a program for reforming the offender to prevent later offenses

89

medicalization of deviance

the transformation of moral and legal deviance into a medical condition

90

coercive organizations

are organizations people are forced to join (examples include prisons and mental hospitals).

91

INTERACTION

AS A GROUP GROWS, PATTERNS OF ___________ AMONG ITS MEMBERS CHANGES.

92

The Thomas Theorem

Developed by W.I. Thomas.

93

street crimes

population size

More whites than African Americans are arrested for __________ __________. However, African Americans are arrested more often than whites in relation to their __________ __________. Asian Americans have a lower-than-average rate of arrest.

94

differential association theory

Sutherland’s __________ __________ __________ links deviance to how much others encourage or discourage such behavior.

95

secondary group

a large and impersonal social group whose members pursue a specific goal or activity

96

Retreatism

- Rejects the goals And the means, and Retreats from society.

97

social media

based on computer technology have involved people in more and more social networks that now extend around the world.

98

sociological theories

view all behavior—deviance as well as conformity—as products of society. Sociologists point out that
• what is deviant varies from place to place according to cultural norms
• behavior and individuals become deviant as others define them that way
• what and who a society defines as deviant reflect who has and does not have social power

99

status set

all the statuses a person holds at a given time

100

● A contrast of two realities; contradiction or “double
meanings.”
● Timing and delivery are important.

The Foundation of humor –

101

social media

technology that links people in social activity

102

SECONDARY GROUPS

- WEAK EMOTIONAL TIES; LITTLE PERSONAL KNOWLEDGE OF EACH OTHER.

103

achieved status

a social position a person takes on voluntarily that reflects personal ability and effort

104

Bureaucracy

__________, which Max Weber saw as the dominant type of organization in modern societies, is based on:
- specialization
- hierarchy of positions
- rules and regulations
- technical competence
- impersonality
- formal, written communications

105

norms

values

moral boundaries

together

social change

Structural-Functional Theories:
Durkheim claimed that deviance is a normal element of society that affirms cultural __________ and ___________, clarifies __________ __________, brings people ___________, and encourages __________ __________.

106

control theory

Hirschi’s __________ __________ states that imagining the possible consequences of deviance often discourages such behavior. People who are well integrated into society are less likely to engage in deviant behavior.

107

instrumental leadership

group leadership that focuses on the completion of tasks

108

conflict

Humor is used to bring “secret” __________ out into the open.

109

crimes against the person

(violent crime) include murder, aggravated assault, and forcible rape.

110

Non-verbal communication

Dramaturgical Analysis: __________ __________ – body language/gestures.

111

Social group

two or more people who identify with and interact with one another

112

others

• behavior and individuals become deviant as __________ define them that way

113

SECONDARY GROUPS

(EX. STUDENTS TAKING A COURSE, CO-WORKERS, BUSINESS ASSOCIATES, etc

114

- 1st group experienced

- Members see each other as irreplaceable and unique and an end in itself

Primary Group Characteristics

115

• bureaucratic alienation
• bureaucratic inefficiency and ritualism
• bureaucratic inertia
• oligarchy

problems of bureaucracy include:

116

Social status

- a position within a society or organization

117

Containment Theory

“__________ __________” – deviant impulses contained by presence of strong superego (conscience).

118

master status

which can be either ascribed or achieved, has special importance for a person’s identity (for example, being blind, a doctor, or a Rockefeller).

119

Staring and touching

are generally done by men to women.

120

community-based corrections

include probation and parole. These programs lower the cost of supervising people convicted of crimes and reduce prison overcrowding but have not been shown to reduce recidivism.

121

Sutherland’s Differential Association
Characteristics:

1. Intimate interaction with other deviants.

2. behaviors, attitudes, motives, drives, rationalizations modeled.

3. Deviance viewed as favorable.

4. Interactions are frequent, enduring, take place early in person’s life, and are the most emotional/meaningful.

122

network

a web of weak social ties

123

oligarchy

the rule of the many by the few

124

A) Punishable?
B) victim reports it?
C) Police discretion?
D) Prosecutor pursues or drops case?
E) Fair and reasonable evidence.

What is officially regarded as crime depends on:

125

inward

outward

inward

Peter Blau claimed that larger groups turn __________, socially diverse groups turn __________, and physically segregated groups turn __________.

126

role set

a number of roles attached to a single status

127

Idealization

Dramaturgical Analysis: __________ -people often idealize their intentions to reflect cultural standards/expectations.

128

ascribed status

which is involuntary (for example, being a teenager, an orphan, or a Mexican American)

129

Degradation Ceremony

Criminal prosecution as a “__________ __________”

130

death penalty

The __________ __________ remains controversial in the United States, the only high-income Western nation that routinely executes serious offenders. The trend is toward fewer executions.

131

Networks

Promoting yourself

132

Role conflict

results from tension among roles linked to two or more statuses (for example, a woman who juggles her responsibilities as a mother and a corporate CEO).

133

THE “MCDONALDIZATION OF SOCIETY”

- EMPHASIZING EFFICIENCY, CALCULABILITY, UNIFORMITY/PREDICTABILITY, AND CONTROL THROUGH AUTOMATION.

134

deviance

Criminal __________ regulated through the criminal justice system.

135

flexible model

McJobs

The future of organizations: opposing Trends
In our postindustrial society, many organizations are evolving toward a “flatter,” more __________ __________ that encourages worker creativity.
At the same time, other organizations that provide services require more workers to perform “__________,” which describes low-wage, routine work.

136

use of space

—Men typically command more space than women.

137

organized crime

a business supplying illegal goods or services

138

cultural norms

• what is deviant varies from place to place according to __________ __________

139

ascribed status

a social position a person receives at birth or takes on involuntarily later in life

140

victimless crimes

violations of law in which there are no obvious victims

141

A PRIMARY GROUP

- A SMALL SOCIAL GROUP; MEMBERS SHARE PERSONAL AND ENDURING RELATIONSHIPS.

142

strain theory

Structural-Functional Theories:
Merton’s __________ __________ explains deviance in terms of a society’s cultural goals and the means available to achieve them.
Deviant subcultures are discussed by Cloward and Ohlin, Cohen, Miller, and Anderson.

143

Front Stage

Dramaturgical Analysis: __________ __________ – behavior visible to the audience.

144

retribution

an act of moral vengeance by which society makes the offender suffer as much as the suffering caused by the crime

145

● Retribution - moral vengeance
● Deterrence - discourages criminality.
● Rehabilitation - reforming the offender.
● Societal protection - incarceration/execution.

THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM

Punishment (4 justifications)

146

Role strain

results from tension among roles linked to a single status (for example, the college professor who enjoys personal interaction with students but at the same time knows that social distance is necessary in order to evaluate students fairly).

147

crime

the violation of a society’s formally enacted criminal law

148

oppressors

Also, the disadvantaged often make jokes about their ____________.

149

role

behavior expected of someone who holds a particular status

150

utilitarian organizations

pay people for their efforts (examples include a business or government agency).

151

- Short term

- Begins and ends with no particular significance

- geared towards completing a task

- a means to an end

Secondary Group Characteristics

152

Personality

The way a person thinks, feels, behaves

153

Social construction of reality

the process by which people creatively shape reality through social interaction

154

criminal justice system

the organizations—police, courts, and prison o cials—that respond to alleged violations of the law

155

Roles

are behaviors performed in a particular status.

156

Innovator

– accepts the culturally approved goals, but rejects the means.

157

Demeanor

—With greater social power, men have more freedom in how they act.

158

primary group

a small social group whose members share personal and lasting relationships

159

Retrospective Labeling

– the act of labeling past behavior as deviant based on a present accusation.

160

deviant labels

Social Conflict theorists believe that the wealthy have the power to resist __________ __________.

161

NORMATIVE ORGANIZATION

– voluntary; moral goals.

162

ETHNOMETHODOLOGY

Uncovers unspoken agreements beneath the “surface” of human interaction.

163

Labeling theory

– deviance is relative; depends on who is labeling the deviant act.

164

retribution, deterrence, rehabilitation, and societal protection

There are four justifications for punishment:

165

postindustrial economy

The changing nature of work
Recently, the rise of a __________ __________ has created two very different types of work:
• highly skilled and creative work (examples include designers, consultants, programmers, and executives)
• low-skilled service work associated with the “McDonaldization” of society, based on efficiency, uniformity, and control (examples include jobs in fast-food restaurants and telemarketing).

166

THE FAMILY

- MOST IMPORTANT PRIMARY GROUP

167

stigma

a powerfully negative label that greatly changes a person’s self-concept and social identity

168

Category

People with a common status

169

presentation of self

Erving Go man’s term for a person’s e orts to create speci c impressions in the minds of others

170

dyad

a social group with two members

171

Nonverbal communication

communication using body movements, gestures, and facial expressions rather than speech

172

Social interaction

-the process by which people act and react in relation to others.

173

women

men

In the United States and elsewhere, societies control the behavior of __________ more closely than that of __________.

174

role strain

tension among the roles connected to a single status

175

achieved status

which is earned (for example, being an honors student, a pilot, or a thief).

176

corporate crime

the illegal actions of a corporation or people acting on its behalf

177

Crimes against the person

crimes that direct violence or the threat of violence against others; also known as violent crimes

178

Biological theories

focus on individual abnormality and explain human behavior as the result of biological instincts.

179

EXPRESSIVE GROUP LEADERSHIP

FOCUSES ON COLLECTIVE WELL BEING.

180

Personal responsibility

DIFFUSION OF RESPONSIBILITY
____________ ___________is reduced when they are part of a group; less likely to intervene or feel responsible.

181

Reality play

humor

__________ __________: The Social Construction of __________
Humor results from the difference between conventional and unconventional definitions of a situation. Because humor is a part of culture, people around the world find different situations funny.

182

social power

• what and who a society defines as deviant reflect who has and does not have __________ __________

183

a secondary group

is large, impersonal and goal-ori- ented, and often of shorter duration (examples include a college class or a corporation).

184

DRAMATURGICAL ANALYSIS: Presentation of Self

People act in ways that resemble actors on a stage.

185

Durkheim’s 4 essential functions of deviance:

1. Affirms cultural values and norms.

2. Response to deviance clarifies moral boundaries.

3. Responding brings people together.

4. Deviance encourages social change (civil rights movement).

186

formal organizations

are large secondary groups organized to achieve their goals efficiently.

187

conformity

The Asch, Milgram, and Janis research shows that group members often seek agreement and may pressure one another toward __________.

188

- Relationships secondary in nature

- Respect vs Affection

Instrumental

189

Role strain

- incompatibility among roles relating to a single status (supervisor being a boss and friend to staff).

190

Social conflict

__________ __________ theorists argue that the powerless are labeled deviant by the powerful.

191

Deviance

the recognized violation of cultural norms.

192

Role conflict

-when there is incompatibility among roles relating to two or more statuses (ex. A working mother).

193

role conflict

conflict among the roles connected to two or more statuses

194

lower social position

Street crime is more common among people of __________ __________ __________. Including white-collar and corporate crime makes class differences in criminality smaller.

195

labeling theory

primary deviance

secondary deviance

Symbolic-Interaction Theories:
__________ __________ claims that deviance depends less on what someone does than on how others react to that behavior. If people respond to __________ __________ by stigmatizing a person, __________ __________ and a deviant career may result.

196

- Relationships primary in nature

- receives affection from others

- uses sympathy and humor in workplace

Expressive

197

Sixty-three

80

__________ percent of people arrested for property crimes and __________ percent of people arrested for violent crimes are male.

198

medicalization of deviance

The __________ __________ __________ is the transformation of moral and legal deviance into a medical condition. In practice, this means a change in labels, replacing “good” and “bad” with “sick” and “well.”

199

ETHNOMETHODOLOGY

The study of the way people make sense of their everyday surroundings.

200

Stigma

– Powerfully negative label; master status.

201

master status

a status that has special importance for social identity, often shaping a person’s entire life

202

social media

The expansion of __________ __________ has dramatically changed how people interact.
• The social construction of reality no longer requires people to have face-to-face interaction.

203

deviance

social control prevents __________.

204

organizational environment

factors outside an organization that affect its operation

205

Thomas theorem

The __________ __________ says that the reality people construct in their interaction has real consequences for the future.
• For example, a teacher who believes a certain student to be intellectually gifted may well encourage exceptional academic performance.

206

Walter Reckless

Simon Dinitz

Personality factors:
__________ __________ and __________ __________ (1967) - “Containment Theory” – deviant impulses contained by presence of strong superego (conscience).

207

ethnomethodology

Harold Garfinkel’s term for the study of the way people make sense of their everyday surroundings

208

reference group

a social group that serves as a point of reference in making evaluations and decisions

209

Back Stage

Dramaturgical Analysis: __________ __________ – area out of “audience’s” sight; inappropriate and unexpected behavior.

210

TRIAD

GROUP SIZE
___________- 3 MEMBERS.

211

McDonaldization of Society

Businesses have adopted the organizational principles of McDonalds

212

performances

__________ are the way we present ourselves to others.
• Performances are both conscious (intentional action) and unconscious (nonverbal communication).
• Performances include costume (the way we dress), props (objects we carry), and demeanor (tone of voice and the way we carry ourselves).

213

formal organization

a large secondary group organized to achieve its goals efficiently

214

social interaction

Through __________ __________, we construct the reality we experience.
• For example, two people interacting both try to shape the reality of their situation.

215

Scientific management

Frederick Taylor’s term for the application of scientific principles to the operation of a business or other large organization

216

police

The __________ maintain public order by enforcing the law.

217

out-group

a social group toward which a person feels a sense of competition or opposition

218

actor

audience

Dramaturgical Analysis: Embarrassment uncomfortable for both the __________ and __________.

219

personal space

the surrounding area over which a person makes some claim to privacy

220

Illusive pursuit of Job Security

Hard to find job security

221

Sheldon Glueck

Eleanor Glueck

__________ __________ and __________ __________ (1950) - body type and labeling; parents emotionally distant.

222

The Thomas Theorem

Example:
● If a person believes someone is against them, they will treat that person poorly, and the belief becomes reality.

223

scientific management

conventional Bureaucracy
• In the early 1900s, Frederick Taylor’s __________ __________ applied scientific principles to increase productivity.

224

bureaucracy

an organizational model rationally designed to perform tasks efficiently

225

William Sheldon

___________ __________ (1949) - body type – muscular males more aggressive and violent.

226

Dramaturgical analysis

__________ __________ explores social interaction in terms of theatrical performance: A status operates as a part in a play, and a role is a script.

227

social structure

The __________ __________ helps us cope with daily situations. It is made up of:

- Status
- Role

228

3 Foundations of Deviance:

1. Varies according to cultural norms.

2. Depends on other people’s perceptions and response.

3. Those with power in society define deviance for most of society.

229

culture

social class

Both __________ and _________ _________ shape the reality people construct.
• For example, a “short walk” for a New Yorker is a few city blocks, but for a peasant in Latin America, it could be a few miles.

230

Authoritarian

Instrumental leaders tend to be __________

231

Deviance

refers to norm violations ranging from minor infractions, such as bad manners, to major infractions, such as serious violence.

232

language

Gender

__________: The Social Construction of __________
Gender is an important element of everyday interaction. Language defines women and men as different types of people, reflecting the fact that society attaches greater power and value to what is viewed as masculine.

233

SOLOMON ASCH

GROUP PRESSURE TO CONFORM THRU VISUAL TEST

234

Dramaturgical analysis

Erving Goffman’s term for the study of social interaction in terms of theatrical performance

235

BYSTANDER EFFECT

The tendency not to become involved in helping others when assuming that others will assist.

236

Deviance

the recognized violation of cultural norms

237

Embarrassment

tact

__________ is the “loss of face” in a performance. People use __________ to help others “save face.”

238

ETHNOMETHODOLOGY

involved purposely violating norms and observing how people respond.

239

bureaucratic inertia

the tendency of bureaucratic organizations to perpetuate themselves

240

put down

Humor is used as an instrument to “__________ _________” the disadvantaged.

241

rationalization of society

the historical change from tradition to rationality as the main type of human thought

242

social media

technology that links people in social activity

243

Embarrassment

Dramaturgical Analysis:__________ - discomfort of a spoiled performance. Is inevitable .

244

Hate crimes

are crimes motivated by racial or other bias; they target people who are already disadvantaged based on race, gender, or sexual orientation.

245

organized crime

has a long history in the United States, especially among categories of people with few legitimate opportunities.

246

power

privilege

Race-conflict theory and feminist theory explain that what people consider deviant reflects the relative __________ and __________ of different categories of people.

247

Performance

Dramaturgical Analysis: __________– conscious/unconscious; includes dress (costume) props (objects carried) and mannerisms; changes according to setting.

248

Emotions

feeling

__________: The Social Construction of __________
The same basic emotions are biologically programmed into all human beings, but culture guides what triggers emotions, how people display emotions, and how people value emotions. In everyday life, the presentation of self involves managing emotions as well as behavior.