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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (59):
1

veristic portrait

refers to a hyper-realistic portrayal of the subject's facial characteristics.

2

coffer

A coffer (or coffering) in architecture is a series of sunken panels in the shape of a square, rectangle, or octagon in a ceiling, soffit or vault.

3

oculus

a round or eyelike opening or design, in particular.

4

contrapposto stance

an Italian term that means counterpoise. It is used in the visual arts to describe a human figure standing with most of its weight on one foot so that its shoulders and arms twist off-axis from the hips and legs.

5

triclinium

a dining table with couches along three sides used in ancient Rome.

6

fresco

a painting done rapidly in watercolor on wet plaster on a wall or ceiling, so that the colors penetrate the plaster and become fixed as it dries.

7

buon (true) fresco

a fresco painting technique in which alkaline-resistant pigments, ground in water, are applied to wet plaster. It is distinguished from the fresco-secco (or a secco) and finto fresco techniques, in which paints are applied to dried plaster.

8

secco fresco

a wall painting technique where pigments mixed with an organic binder and/or lime are applied onto a dry plaster.

9

Second Style Roman wall painting

he Roman wall paintings in Pompeii that Mau categorized were true frescoes, meaning that pigment was applied to wet plaster, fixing the pigment to the wall

10

triumphal arch

a monumental structure in the shape of an archway with one or more arched passageways, often designed to span a road

11

equestrian statue

a statue of a rider mounted on a horse

12

porphyry

a hard igneous rock containing crystals, usually of feldspar, in a fine-grained, typically reddish groundmass.

13

roundels

a small disk, especially a decorative medallion.

14

niche

a shallow recess, especially one in a wall to display a statue or other ornament.

15

idealized sculpture

idealized statues were sculpted so that the human figure would look perfect. ... The muscles were well defined as to try to show off the perfection of the figure.

16

catacombs

an underground cemetery consisting of a subterranean gallery with recesses for tombs, as constructed by the ancient Romans.

17

basilica

a large oblong hall or building with double colonnades and a semicircular apse, used in ancient Rome as a court of law or for public assemblies.

18

orant figure

a female figure in the posture of prayer in ancient Greek art. 2 : a usually female figure standing with outstretched arms as if in prayer used in early Christian art as a symbol of the faithful dead.

19

Pagan art

heathen 1; especially : a follower of a polytheistic religion (as in ancient Rome) 2 : one who has little or no religion and who delights in sensual pleasures and material goods : an irreligious or hedonistic person.

20

nave

the central part of a church building, intended to accommodate most of the congregation. In traditional Western churches it is rectangular, separated from the chancel by a step or rail, and from adjacent aisles by pillars.

21

clerestory

the upper part of the nave, choir, and transepts of a large church, containing a series of windows. It is clear of the roofs of the aisles and admits light to the central parts of the building.

22

fibulae

a brooch or pin for fastening garments. The fibula developed in a variety of shapes, but all were based on the safety-pin principle

23

barbarian metalwork

etal work was a large focus of the Barbarians (fashion accessory)
- found in wealthy burial site
- abstract form of decoration, animals (fish, bird), inspired by the natural world
- intricate patterning: attention to detail (inspire stain glass windows, manuscripts)

24

illuminated manuscripts

a manuscript in which the text is supplemented with such decoration as initials, borders (marginalia) and miniature illustrations

25

bestiary

a compendium of beasts. Originating in the Ancient world, bestiaries were made popular in the Middle Ages in illustrated volumes that described various animals and even rocks. The natural history and illustration of each beast was usually accompanied by a moral lesson.

26

cross-carpet page

a characteristic feature of Insular illuminated manuscripts. They are pages of mainly geometrical ornamentation, which may include repeated animal forms, typically placed at the beginning of each of the four Gospels in Gospel Books.

27

barrel vault

A barrel vault, also known as a tunnel vault or a wagon vault, is an architectural element formed by the extrusion of a single curve (or pair of curves, in the case of a pointed barrel vault) along a given distance. The curves are typically circular in shape, lending a semi-cylindrical appearance to the total design.

28

groin vault

s produced by the intersection at right angles of two barrel vaults. The word "groin" refers to the edge between the intersecting vaults. Sometimes the arches of groin vaults are pointed instead of round

29

scriptorium

a room, as in a monastery, library, or other institution, where manuscripts are stored, read, or copied

30

repousseé

an abstract painting in which the artist drips or splatters paint onto a surface like a canvas in order to create his or her work.

31

apse mosaic

Commonly, the apse of a church, cathedral or basilica is the semicircular or polygonal termination to the choir or sanctuary, or sometimes at the end of an aisle. In relation to church architecture it is generally the name given to where the altar is placed or where the clergy are seated.

32

orb

Orb, emblem of royal power, usually made of precious metal and jewels and consisting of a sphere surmounted by a cross

33

icon

An icon (from Greek εἰκών eikōn "image") is a religious work of art, most commonly a painting, from the Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, and certain Eastern Catholic churches. The most common subjects include Christ, Mary, saints and/or angels.

34

Iconoclasm

“image breaking” and refers to a recurring historical impulse to break or destroy images for religious or political reasons.

35

Pantocrator

Christ Pantocrator is a specific depiction of Christ. Pantocrator or Pantokrator (Greek: Χριστὸς Παντοκράτωρ) is, used in this context, a translation of one of many names of God in Judaism.

36

diptych

1 : a 2-leaved hinged tablet folding together to protect writing on its waxed surfaces. 2 : a picture or series of pictures (such as an altarpiece) painted or carved on two hinged tablets.

37

tempura

a permanent, fast-drying painting medium consisting of colored pigments mixed with a water-soluble binder medium (usually glutinous material such as egg yolk or some other size). Tempera also refers to the paintings done in this medium.

38

Kufic

Kufic is the oldest calligraphic form of the various Arabic scripts and consists of a modified form of the old Nabataean script. What is used in the Quran (up until 1900)

39

arabesque

a curved, almost abstracted shape that can look like flowers and plants

40

hypostyle hall

interior space whose roof rests on pillars or columns. The word means literally “under pillars,” and the design allows for the construction of large spaces—as in temples, palaces, or public buildings—without the need for arches.

41

mihrab

a semicircular niche in the wall of a mosque that indicates the qibla; that is, the direction of the Kaaba in Mecca and hence the direction that Muslims should face when praying. The wall in which a mihrab appears is thus the "qibla wall".

42

minaret

a feature of Islamic architecture and is the place from where the call to prayer is sent out.

43

horseshoe arch

also called the Moorish arch and the keyhole arch, is the emblematic arch of Moorish architecture. Horseshoe arches can take rounded, pointed or lobed form.

44

barrel vaul

known as a tunnel vault or a wagon vault, is an architectural element formed by the extrusion of a single curve (or pair of curves, in the case of a pointed barrel vault) along a given distance. The curves are typically circular in shape, lending a semi-cylindrical appearance to the total design.

45

groin (cross) vault

is produced by the intersection at right angles of two barrel vaults. The word "groin" refers to the edge between the intersecting vaults. Sometimes the arches of groin vaults are pointed instead of round.

46

pilgrimage

journey

47

mandorla

in religious art, almond-shaped aureole of light surrounding the entire figure of a holy person; it was used in Christian art usually for the figure of Christ and is also found in the art of Buddhism. Its origins are uncertain.

48

narthex

an architectural element typical of early Christian and Byzantine basilicas and churches consisting of the entrance or lobby area, located at the west end of the nave, opposite the church's main altar.

49

nave

the principal longitudinal area of a church, extending from the main entrance or narthex to the chancel, usually flanked by aisles of less height and breadth: generally used only by the congregation. Origin of nave. Medieval Latin.

50

aisle

one of the lateral aisles of a building (such as a church, basilica, or theater) as distinguished from the central aisle or nave.

51

transept

s a transverse part of any building, which lies across the main body of the edifice. In churches, a transept is an area set crosswise to the nave in a cruciform ("cross-shaped") building within the Romanesque and Gothic Christian church architectural traditions.

52

bay

a bay is the space between architectural elements, or a recess or compartment. Bay comes from "Old French baee," meaning an opening or hole.

53

triforium

the wall at the side of the nave, choir, or transept, corresponding to the space between the vaulting or ceiling and the roof of an aisle, often having a blind arcade or an opening in a gallery.

54

radiating chapels

arranged radially around the ambulatory of a semicircular or polygonal liturgical east end.

55

ambulatory

A semicircular or polygonal aisle. Often an ambulatory leads around the east end of the choir; separating the choir from apses or chapels.

56

historiated capital

A capital which is decorated with figures of animals, birds, or humans, used either alone or combined with foliage. The figures need not have any meaning, although they may be symbolic or part of a narrative sequence.

57

tympanum

s the semi-circular or triangular decorative wall surface over an entrance, door or window, which is bounded by a lintel and arch. It often contains sculpture or other imagery or ornaments. ... Bands of molding surrounding the tympanum are referred to as the archivolt.

58

jambs

a side post or surface of a doorway, window, or fireplace.

59

portal

a doorway, gate, or other entrance, especially a large and elaborate one.