Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (89):
Carbohydrate storage molecule of plants
Builds hard shells of insects and shell fish
In which direction does DNA replicate?
Prevents water loss in plants and guards our ear drums from dust or dirt
- bacteria has a single circular loop of DNA
- replication works around DNA molecule in both directions
- produces two identical circles
Carbohydrates and lipids contain the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. if you are given a molecular formula how could you tell them apart?
Lipids have roughly twice as many hydrogen as carbon but relatively little oxygen.
4 Classes of Organic Molecules
The process of converting oils to solids by adding hydrogen’s across their double bonds
This is a monosaccharide made by plants; when combined with glucose, sucrose results.
A scale used to measure the concentration of hydrogen and hydroxide ion in a solution
How do you know if a molecule is hydrophilic?
The molecule contains more hydrogen than carbon
Which is Lipid?
C6H12O6 or C18H36O2
C18H36O2 because it has very little oxygen
This lipid insulates mammals which helps retain body heat
The reaction that allows cells to join 2 monomers
What properties do all lipids have?
They are hydrophobic, since they contain very few oxygen atoms compared to carbon and hydrogen atoms.
Keeps plasma membrane fluid like
Which of these are monosaccharides?
Chitin, glucose, fructose, cellulose, galactose, deoxyribose, glycogen.
Glucose, fructose, galactose, and deoxyribose.
This monosaccharide is found in RNA
Contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. 1:2:1 ration
Fears water, not water soluble
When a chain of many amino acids are joined together
- Occurs in nucleus
- replication begins at several points along linear chromosomes
- bubbles spread until they pop
A polar group that is present in sugars and some amino acids
When a diner forms a bind with another monomer. Three or more monomers linked together
Which of these are polysaccharides? Fructose, cellulose, Chitin, deoxyribose, galactose.
Cellulose and chitin
Organic molecules. Are the monomers that serve as building blocks of polypeptides
Substances that release hydrogen ions-Thus lowering pH
Reaction that allows your cells to break down a diner into 2 monomers
This lipid is a primary long term energy storage molecule found in mammal bodies.
Smallest repeating sub unit of a macromolecule
Contains maximum number of hydrogen
Polar and acidic
-Any organic molecule that contains Carboxyl is an acid
Water loving, soluble in water
What level of pH is neutral?
Combine 2 monosaccharides during dehydration synthesis. Lactose, maltose, and sucrose are disaccharides
Unwinds the DNA strand
What type of hormones are made out of lipids?
Testosterone, cholesterol, and estrogen
Substances that take up hydrogen ions -Thus increasing pH
Chemical messengers that tell specific cells to carry out particular functions
The protein in red blood cells that binds with oxygen and assist the blood in transporting oxygen
What is amphipathic?
A molecule that is both polar and nonpolar. Water soluble and nonwater soluble
Macromolecules containing carbon oxygen hydrogen nitrogen and sulphur
Monomers of DNA that make up DNA
What two functional groups do you expect to find on an amino acid?
Carboxyl and amino
This is the monosaccharide that is combined with glucose to become lactose, milk sugar.
2 monosaccharides, found in intestines
Polymer Of monosaccharides
Examples: starch, cellulose, glycogen, and chitin
Monomers of Carbohydrates
Has double bond between carbon and has fewer hydrogen
Glucose and galactose
Functions of Carbohydrates
Energy and structure
Functions of polysaccharides
Starch and cellulose
This monosaccharide is found in the blood and is most useful to cells for immediate energy. The brain needs this to function
Molecules that have the same molecular formula but different structural formal
Name 4 functions of lipids
Water proofing, insulation, hormones, and energy storage
2 functional groups of proteins
Amino and carboxyl
Glucose and fructose, found in plants
What makes a molecule hydrophobic?
When it has as much less oxygen atoms compared to carbon and hydrogen atoms
How do you know if a molecule is organic?
It contains hydrogen and carbon.
Which is the subscript?
(Hlop^22) or (Hlop22)
Subscripts appear at or below the base line. So (Hlop22) is the subscript
What polysaccharide do humans use for energy storage?
a substance deposited in bodily tissues (muscles and liver) as a store of carbohydrates. It is a polysaccharide that forms glucose on hydrolysis.
Four types of nucleotides
Hydrophobic nonpolar molecules
Such as fats, waxes, phospholipid, and steroids
This is the sugar component of DNA, the hereditary molecule.
Which of these are disaccharides?
Chitin, lactose, starch, cellulose, maltose.
Lactose and maltose
When it is attached to a molecule containing carbon, it is called a phosphate group. It is found in the genetic material DNA and RNA, and is also in ATP
What Is the function of DNA?
It contains information on how to build proteins
Which is Carbohydrate?
C6H12O6 or C18H36O2
C6H12O6 because they have the same number of carbon and oxygen
When two or more amino acids are bonded together
Agarose gel electrophoresis
- separate DNA fragments by size
- DNA moves through g by applying electric current like a magnet
Molecules that contain both carbon and hydrogen which make it organic
Enzymes cut both strands of DNA molecules at sequence specific site
-Some silent DNA is in Tamden repeats
-lengths differ between person
Monomers of proteins
This disaccharide forms when starch is digested by enzymes
These help maintain pH. They are combos of chemicals that react with H+and OH- ions to keep blood from being too basic or acidic
Functions are, energy storage, cushion for kidneys and eyes
Five carbon sugar that is present in DNA
Gives supper and strength to skin, muscles, ligaments, and tendons
Which is the superscript? (Hlop22) or (Hlop^22)
Superscripted appear above the baseline. So (Hlop^22) is the superscript
Helps structure of cell walls. Humans cannot digest cellulose.
Name 3 Functional Groups
How does DNA replicate?
1) DNA helicase- strips DNA apart
2) DNA polymerase- reads and builds the new strand
3) DNA Ligase- seals any gaps
An ester Formed from three fatty acids and glycerol molecule that have to go through dehydration synthesis three times. Triglycerides are the main constituents of natural fats and oils.
- Restriction endonucleases
- Tamden repeats
- agarose gel electrophoresis
Two strand of DNA run in the opposite directions