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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (89):
1

Starch

Carbohydrate storage molecule of plants

2

Chitin

Builds hard shells of insects and shell fish

3

In which direction does DNA replicate?

One direction
5’-3’

4

Wax

Prevents water loss in plants and guards our ear drums from dust or dirt

5

Prokaryotic replication

- bacteria has a single circular loop of DNA
- replication works around DNA molecule in both directions
- produces two identical circles

6

Carbohydrates and lipids contain the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. if you are given a molecular formula how could you tell them apart?

Lipids have roughly twice as many hydrogen as carbon but relatively little oxygen.

7

4 Classes of Organic Molecules

-Carbohydrates
-Lipids
-Proteins
-Nucleic Acids

8

Hydrogenation

The process of converting oils to solids by adding hydrogen’s across their double bonds

10

This is a monosaccharide made by plants; when combined with glucose, sucrose results.

Fructose

11

pH

A scale used to measure the concentration of hydrogen and hydroxide ion in a solution

12

How do you know if a molecule is hydrophilic?

The molecule contains more hydrogen than carbon

13

Which is Lipid?
C6H12O6 or C18H36O2

C18H36O2 because it has very little oxygen

14

This lipid insulates mammals which helps retain body heat

Triglyceride

15

Dehydration synthesis

The reaction that allows cells to join 2 monomers

16

What properties do all lipids have?

They are hydrophobic, since they contain very few oxygen atoms compared to carbon and hydrogen atoms.

20

Phospholipids

Keeps plasma membrane fluid like

21

Which of these are monosaccharides?
Chitin, glucose, fructose, cellulose, galactose, deoxyribose, glycogen.

Glucose, fructose, galactose, and deoxyribose.

22

This monosaccharide is found in RNA

Ribose

23

Carbohydrates

Contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. 1:2:1 ration

24

Hydrophobic

Fears water, not water soluble

25

Polypeptide

When a chain of many amino acids are joined together

26

Eukaryotic replication

- Occurs in nucleus
- replication begins at several points along linear chromosomes
- bubbles spread until they pop

27

Hydroxyl Group

A polar group that is present in sugars and some amino acids

29

Polymer

When a diner forms a bind with another monomer. Three or more monomers linked together

30

Which of these are polysaccharides? Fructose, cellulose, Chitin, deoxyribose, galactose.

Cellulose and chitin

31

Amino acid

Organic molecules. Are the monomers that serve as building blocks of polypeptides

32

Acids

Substances that release hydrogen ions-Thus lowering pH

33

Hydrolysis

Reaction that allows your cells to break down a diner into 2 monomers

34

This lipid is a primary long term energy storage molecule found in mammal bodies.

Triglyceride

35

Monomer

Smallest repeating sub unit of a macromolecule

35

Saturated

Contains maximum number of hydrogen

36

Carboxyl Group

Polar and acidic
-Any organic molecule that contains Carboxyl is an acid

36

Hydrophilic

Water loving, soluble in water

37

What level of pH is neutral?

7

37

Disaccharides

Combine 2 monosaccharides during dehydration synthesis. Lactose, maltose, and sucrose are disaccharides

38

DNA helicase

Unwinds the DNA strand

40

What type of hormones are made out of lipids?

Testosterone, cholesterol, and estrogen

41

Bases

Substances that take up hydrogen ions -Thus increasing pH

42

Hormones

Chemical messengers that tell specific cells to carry out particular functions

43

Hemoglobin

The protein in red blood cells that binds with oxygen and assist the blood in transporting oxygen

45

What is amphipathic?

A molecule that is both polar and nonpolar. Water soluble and nonwater soluble

47

Proteins

Macromolecules containing carbon oxygen hydrogen nitrogen and sulphur

48

Nucleotides

Monomers of DNA that make up DNA

49

What two functional groups do you expect to find on an amino acid?

Carboxyl and amino

50

This is the monosaccharide that is combined with glucose to become lactose, milk sugar.

Galactose

51

Maltose

2 monosaccharides, found in intestines

52

Polysaccharide

Polymer Of monosaccharides
Examples: starch, cellulose, glycogen, and chitin

53

Monosaccharides

Monomers of Carbohydrates

53

Unsaturated

Has double bond between carbon and has fewer hydrogen

54

Lactose

Glucose and galactose

55

Functions of Carbohydrates

Energy and structure

55

Functions of polysaccharides

Starch and cellulose

56

This monosaccharide is found in the blood and is most useful to cells for immediate energy. The brain needs this to function

Glucose

57

Isomers

Molecules that have the same molecular formula but different structural formal

58

Name 4 functions of lipids

Water proofing, insulation, hormones, and energy storage

59

2 functional groups of proteins

Amino and carboxyl

60

Sucrose

Glucose and fructose, found in plants

62

What makes a molecule hydrophobic?

When it has as much less oxygen atoms compared to carbon and hydrogen atoms

63

How do you know if a molecule is organic?

It contains hydrogen and carbon.

64

Which is the subscript?
(Hlop^22) or (Hlop22)

Subscripts appear at or below the base line. So (Hlop22) is the subscript

65

What polysaccharide do humans use for energy storage?

Glycogen

66

Glycogen

a substance deposited in bodily tissues (muscles and liver) as a store of carbohydrates. It is a polysaccharide that forms glucose on hydrolysis.

66

Four types of nucleotides

-Adenine
-Thymine
-Guanine
-Cytosine

68

Lipids

Hydrophobic nonpolar molecules
Such as fats, waxes, phospholipid, and steroids

69

This is the sugar component of DNA, the hereditary molecule.

Deoxyribose

72

Which of these are disaccharides?
Chitin, lactose, starch, cellulose, maltose.

Lactose and maltose

73

Phosphate Group

When it is attached to a molecule containing carbon, it is called a phosphate group. It is found in the genetic material DNA and RNA, and is also in ATP

73

What Is the function of DNA?

It contains information on how to build proteins

74

Which is Carbohydrate?
C6H12O6 or C18H36O2

C6H12O6 because they have the same number of carbon and oxygen

75

Peptide

When two or more amino acids are bonded together

75

Agarose gel electrophoresis

- separate DNA fragments by size
- DNA moves through g by applying electric current like a magnet

76

Organic molecules

Molecules that contain both carbon and hydrogen which make it organic

78

Isomer examples

-Glucose
-Fructose
-Galactose

78

Restrictions endonuclease

Enzymes cut both strands of DNA molecules at sequence specific site

78

Tamden repeats

-Some silent DNA is in Tamden repeats
-lengths differ between person

79

Monomers of proteins

Amino acid

79

This disaccharide forms when starch is digested by enzymes

Maltose

80

Buffers

These help maintain pH. They are combos of chemicals that react with H+and OH- ions to keep blood from being too basic or acidic

80

Fat

Functions are, energy storage, cushion for kidneys and eyes

81

Deoxyribose

Five carbon sugar that is present in DNA

83

Collagen

Gives supper and strength to skin, muscles, ligaments, and tendons

84

Which is the superscript? (Hlop22) or (Hlop^22)

Superscripted appear above the baseline. So (Hlop^22) is the superscript

85

Cellulose

Helps structure of cell walls. Humans cannot digest cellulose.

86

Name 3 Functional Groups

-Hydroxyl
-Carboxyl
-Phosphate

86

How does DNA replicate?

1) DNA helicase- strips DNA apart
2) DNA polymerase- reads and builds the new strand
3) DNA Ligase- seals any gaps

87

Triglycerides

An ester Formed from three fatty acids and glycerol molecule that have to go through dehydration synthesis three times. Triglycerides are the main constituents of natural fats and oils.

87

3 tools

- Restriction endonucleases
- Tamden repeats
- agarose gel electrophoresis

87

Anti parallel

Two strand of DNA run in the opposite directions

89

Denaturing

A protein that has lost its 3D shape and its ability to function