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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (34):

What are the typical recommendations for weekly exercise?

30 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity at least five days a week for a total of 150 minutes


What are the psychological benefits associated with aerobic exercise?

Mood enhancement
Social benefits (feeling involved, self-efficacy)
Stress management


What factors positively contribute to an individual's likelihood to engage in exercise?

Positive attitude
social support
boys more than girls
leaner people
easily accessible


What risks are associated with sunscreen usage?

Not using sunscreen with enough SPF, not applying often enough; tanning is still considered healthy


What factors have contributed to the recent rise in obesity?

Social Status and culture
Highly neurotic, extroversion, and impulsive
social networks
siblings and friends who are obese


What health issues can obesity cause?

High blood pressure
chronic pain
back issues
joint issues
risk for heart attack
coronary heart disease


What risk factors are associated with obesity?

lack of exercise


Alcoholic drinking is often used by individuals for what purposes?

social isolation


In alcohol treatment programs, what are the typical steps of treatment?

Short-term, intensive inpatient treatment
Continuing treatment on an outpatient basis

Use of CBT (self-monitoring, motivational enhancements, medications for blocking the alcohol-brain interactions that may contribute to alcoholism)


What are the effects of smoking?

Lung cancer
chronic bronchitis
respiratory disorders
lower birth weight in offspring
retarded fetal development
increases risk of erectile dysfunction by 50%


What factors positively contribute to an individual's ability to discontinue smoking?

reorienting attention away from smoking-related cues, both internal and in the environment
Stages of change model (precontemplation --> contemplation --> action -->cessation)
Social support
positive stress management


What are the recent trends within Utah for tobacco and e-cigarette usages?

Tobacco use has gone down e-cigarette use has gone up in adolescents.


What are the recommendations for fat content in male and female bodies?

20-27% in women
15-22% in men


What is a cognitive-behavioral intervention, and how can it be used to assist an individual in having a healthier lifestyle?

Helps to combat maladaptive eating behavior;

CBT treats problems and boosts happiness by modifying dysfunctional emotions, behaviors, and thoughts. CBT focuses on solutions, encouraging patients to challenge distorted cognitions and change destructive patterns of behavior.


Give an overview of the Bogalusa Heart Study.

Began in 1973. Tracked the cardiovascular health of the town's residents for the next 39 years. Discovered that coronary artery disease begins in childhood. Designed a prevention program that teaches lesson in life: a healthy diet can make for a good heart and the right choices will yield a lifetime of health.


What are the sleep stages, what are the waves associated with each, and what main purposes do each of them have?

Stage 1: Theta waves, lightest stage of sleep

Stage 2: Sleep spindles, large K-complex waves
Body temperature drops, breathing and heart rate even out

Stages 3 & 4: Deep sleep; delta waves, blood pressure falls, immune system strengthens during these stages.

REM Sleep: Beta waves, vivid dreams, consolidating memories


In the documentary “The Marathon Challenge”:
A) What were the health benefits the runners experienced?
B) How was the aerobic fitness of the runners’ measured?

A: Weight loss, better mental health

B. heart rate, breathing rate,


What does activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis result in?


Excessive secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine; immunosuppressive effects; poor sleep quality


What stress response is most attributed to females, and how does it work?

Tend and befriend. Turn to others in stress and take care of off-spring


What are the differences between primary appraisal and secondary appraisal?

Psychological Appraisal
Primary appraisal processes: events may be perceived as positive, neutral, or negative in their consequences

Negative events further appraised for possibly harm, threat, or challenge.

Secondary appraisal processes: assessment of one's coping abilities and whether they are sufficient to meet the harm, threat, and challenge of an event.


Describe Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome model and identify the criticisms of it.

All stressors, regardless of type, produced essentially the same pattern of physiological changes. They all led to an enlarged cortex, shrinking of the thymus and lymph glands, and ulceration of the stomach and duodenum.

1. Assigns a limited role to psychological factors.
2. Not all stressors produce the same biological responses.
3. Concerns whether exhaustion of physiological resources or their chronic activation is most implicated in stress; research suggests continued activation may be most important for accumulating damage to physiological systems, rather than exhaustion.
4. Selye assesses stress as an outcome, as the end point of the general adaptation syndrome. In fact, people experience many debilitating effects of stress after an event has ended and even in anticipation of its occurrence.


What do studies of chronic stress in vulnerable populations show?

Vulnerable populations (children, elderly, low SES) show little adaptation to chronic stressors.


What associations are made with having a high allostatic load?

Refers to the physiological costs of chronic exposure to the physiological changes that result from repeated or chronic stress.

Can be thought of as accelerated aging in response to stress. This can lead to illness and increased risk of death.

Damage is made works if people also cope with a high-fat diet, infrequent exercise, alcohol abuse, and smoking.


What criticisms have been made of Holmes and Rahe’s Stressful Life Events inventory?

When a person must adjust to a changing environment, the likelihood of stress increases.

1. Items on the list is vague
2. Events have preassigned point values so individual differences in how events are experienced are not taken into account
3. Inventories include both negative and positive events, as well as events that people choose. Sudden, negative, unexpected, and uncontrollable events are reliably more stressful.
4. Researchers typically do not assess whether stressful events have been successfully resolved, which mutes adverse effects.


Contrast the effects of minor life events and chronic stress.

Most people can adapt to mildly stressful events; however, it may be difficult or impossible to adapt to highly stressful events, and already-stressed people may be unable to adapt to even moderate stressors


How do factors of discrimination affect poor health for certain populations, and which populations are affected?

Poor health habits
negative attitudes of social world
social disadvantage
lower-educational attainment
poor housing
little available employment
poor schools
poor neighborhoods
enduring sense of danger

African Americans


What potential changes can be made on genetic makeup by stress?

Negative attitude
low immune responses


Acute stress paradigm

Short-term stressful events impact physiological, neuroendocrine and psychological responses has shown how individual differences contribute to stress and what factors ameliorate the experience of stress


Stressful Life Events

Substantial adjustment to the environment that leads to high stress


Fight or Flight

Physiological response associated with life or death situations


Allostatic load

Physiological systems within the body fluctuate to meet demands of stress



Associated with tend-and-befriend stress response


Daily Stress

Minor stressful events (hassles) which produce psychological distress, reports of physical symptoms and enhanced use of health care services.


Example of a chronic stressor

Living in poverty or being in a very unhealthy relationship.