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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (39):
1

The process of receiving stimulus energy from the environment and transforming it into neural energy

Sensation

2

Jack sees a sleek object with four wheels and four doors on the street and recognizes that it is a car. This process of interpreting what he sees as a car is called _____.

Perception

3

Process of organizing and interpreting incoming sensory information

Perception

4

Every day, one sees, hears, smells, tastes and feels stimuli from the outside world. The process of collecting this data about the world is referred to as _____.

Sensation

5

Lionel steps on a jellyfish as he walks barefoot on the beach. At the moment of contact, the physical pain he experiences most accurately exemplifies _____.

Perception

6

Rachel is walking in the woods and feels a sudden pain in the back of her neck. Due to the nature of the pain she recognizes that she has been stung by a bee. In this scenario, which of the following processes has most likely help her identify the source of her pain?

Perception

7

Processing involving starting with a sense of what is happening and then applying that framework to incoming information from the world

Top-down

8

Bottom-up processing involves analysis that begins with

Sensory receptors

9

The intensity of the stimulus is communicated to the brain by varying the ____ of the action potential sent to the brain.

Frequency

10

Which of the sensory processes is most activated when a person is listening to a song?

Mechanoreception

11

Which of the receptors is most activated when a person is doing watching a silent movie?

Photoreception

12

The detection of pressure by sensory receptors is called ___.

Mechanoreception

13

William James described the human mind as a _____

Stream of consciousness

14

Process by which individuals think about thinking

Metacognition

15

Physiological state of being engaged with environment

Arousal

16

Knowing about oneself and thoughts about one’s experiences

Awareness

17

Individual’s awareness of external events and internal sensations under a condition of arousal

Consciousness

18

The concept of “theory of mind”

Understanding that everyone thinks, feels, perceives, and has private experiences

19

Controlled processes

Involve individuals actively focusing their efforts toward a goal

20

Automatic processes

Require little attention

21

What is true of daydreaming?

Individuals drift into a world of fantasy

22

Drugs, trauma, fatigue, hypnosis, and sensory deprivation produce

Altered stats of consciousness

23

According to Freud, ____ mental processes occur without a person being aware of them.

Unconscious

24

Daily behavioral or physiological cycles that involve the sleep/wake cycle, body temperature, blood pressure, and blood sugar level

Circadian rhythms

25

Small brain structure that uses input from retina to synchronize its own rhythm with the daily cycle of light and dark

Suprachiasmatic nucleus

26

Jet lag can be best explained by

The effect of time shifts on circadian rhythm

27

Waves associated with relaxation or drowsiness are called ____ waves.

Alpha

28

What is true of REM sleep?

The longer the period of REM sleep, the more likely the person will report dreaming

29

Learning is defined as

Relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs through experience

30

Process of learning the associations between two events

Conditioning

31

Organisms learn the association between two stimuli

Classical conditioning

32

When cognitive psychologists use the computer as an analogy to explain the relationship between cognition and the brain, the brain is described as the computer’s ____.

Hardware

33

Claudia has brought a recipe book that gives her step-by-step procedures to prepare Italian cuisines. This best illustrates ____.

Algorithms

34

Human beings will often reason from the specific to the general. That is, people often form general rules and concepts based on specific experiences and examples. This type of reasoning is termed as

Inductive reasoning

35

What is true of inductive reasoning?

It involves drawing conclusions based on facts.

36

Joel and Zeus watch a soccer game between Team A and Team B on TV. Team A wins and Zeus exclaims “I knew Team A would win”. Zeus is employing ____.

Hindsight bias

37

being receptive to other ways of looking at things

Open-mindedness

38

Ability to do well on cognitive tasks, to solve problems, and to learn from experience

Intelligence

39

If an intelligence test produces the same score over multiple administrations but does not accurately measure intelligence, then the test is ____.

Reliable but not valid