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Flashcards in exam 2 Deck (73):
1

body growth & change (middle and late childhood)

5-7 lbs per year
2-3 inches per year

2

highest causes of death (middle and late childhood)

motor vehicle accidents
obesity
cancer

3

emotional and behavioral disorders

affect aggression, depression, relationships

4

learning disabilities

based on spoken or written language

5

ADHD

inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity

6

ASD (autism)

deficiencies in social relationships, communication, restricted or repeated behaviors

7

Piaget stage 7-11

concrete operational stage

8

Concrete Operational Stage

can reason logically, perform concrete operations, classify things into different sets

9

seriation

ability to order stimuli along a quantitative dimension

10

transitivity

ability to logically combine relations to understand certain conclusions

11

Binet test

mental age, level of development relative to others
(mental age/chronological age) * 100

12

triarchic theory of intelligence

analytical, creative, practical

13

Gardner intelligence test

verbal, math, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalist

14

bilingualism

good, helps with cognitive development

15

Erikson middle and late childhood stage

industry vs inferiority
kids become interested in how things are made
parents who look at their kids as behaving badly encourages inferiority

16

Kohlberg's theory of morality

(stealing medicine example)
1. heteronomous
2. individualism
3. mutual interpersonal expectations
4. social system morality
5. social contract
6. universal ethical principles

17

heteronomous reality (Kohlberg)

obey based on fear of punishment

18

individualism (Kohlberg)

purpose and exchange (what is right involves equal exchange)

19

mutual interpersonal expectations (Kohlberg)

relationships and interpersonal conformity (morality based on trust, loyal attributes toward others)

20

social system morality (Kohlberg)

judgments based on social order, law, justice, duty

21

social contract morality (Kohlberg)

utility and individual rights—values, rights, and principles transcend the law

22

universal ethical principles (Kohlberg)

morality based on human rights, not based on law

23

controversial peers

lots of likes/dislikes

24

rejected peers

lots of dislikes

25

popular peers

lots of likes, little dislikes

26

neglected peers

not many likes or dislikes

27

average peers

a bit of both likes and dislikes, nothing too crazy

28

body image

girls have higher expectations of physical attractiveness

29

boys early maturation

view themselves positively and have better relations, sense of identity comes later on, around 30s

30

girls early maturation

more satisfaction at the beginning, but more issues later on

31

changes in the brain (adolescence)

prefrontal cortex is region of intense emotions, planning part of the brain
amygdala: affects emotions, part of limbic system
limbic system: where emotions and rewards are, almost completely developed at this point
corpus colossum: connects left and right hemispheres, helps with information processing

32

risk factors for teen sex

drug use, delinquency, school-related problems, poor relationships with family, parents, and older delinquent peers (parent relationships are especially important)

33

anorexia

diet restriction
85% of what is considered normal

34

bulimia

people typically fall within a normal weight range

35

Piaget adolescent stage

formal operational

36

formal operational stage

abstract thought
better problem-solving
more logical thought (creating your own ideas, questioning things, etc.)
more ego-centric
heightened self-consciousness
imaginary audience
personal fable (sense of uniqueness and invincibility)

37

school dropout rates

decreased over time
worse for Latinos

38

Erikson adolescent stage

identity vs. identity confusion

39

Marcia

crisis and commitment

40

identity diffusion

no crisis, no commitment

41

identity closure

no crisis, commitment

42

identity moratorium

crisis, no commitment

43

identity achievement

crisis, commitment

44

moratorium to achievement

everyone cycling through this normally

45

ethnic identity

sense of membership to an ethnic group
bi-cultural identity
occurs across class status

46

religious identity

tends to be positive, normally leads to better self-esteem, conscientiousness, agreeableness, openness

47

parenting teens

normally need to monitor their friends, activities, social settings
should find balance of control and freedom
let their kids have control over areas of life they do understand
okay to have some conflict
don't expect complete compliance

48

dating stages

entry: 11-13
exploring: 13-16
consolidating bonds: 17-19

49

4 main issues for adolescents

drug abuse
juvenile delinquency
sexual problems
school-related problems

50

depression and suicide

genes, family, poor relationships can influence, therapy can help

51

suicide rates - gender

higher rates of attempt for females
higher success rates for males

52

markers of adulthood

graduation, employment, college, depending on culture and circumstance

53

key features of early adulthood

identity exploration (unstable, self-focused, feeling in-between)
age of possibilities

54

physical development — early adulthood

peaks around 19-26
muscle tone and strength decline around 30

55

exercise — early adulthood

helps with chronic disorders
physical and mental health
start habits early

56

substance abuse — early adulthood

binge-drinking increases in college, contributes to risky sexual behavior, smoking is higher in this age group than most, worst thing is to start smoking early

57

sexuality — early adulthood

males have more casual sex (60% have had sex by end of emerging adulthood), but most aren't having kinky sex
adultery is pretty uncommon
true myth: men think about sex far more often

58

sexual orientation

continuum
combination of genetic, hormonal, cognitive, and environmental factors

59

Kinsey scale

heterosexual scale

60

rape culture

overinflating rape statistics reports, teaching women to avoid being raped

61

Piaget early adulthood stage

formal operational

62

personality — early adulthood

influenced by early experiences but not completely determined by them

63

dating and love

first impressions are important
similarity
consensual validation (our views are supported when someone else's are similar to ours)

64

Erikson early adulthood stage

intimacy vs. isolation
issues with feeling isolated and lonely, don't get too caught up in it, form friendships

65

Sternberg's triangle of love

passion, intimacy, commitment

66

infatuation

passion

67

affectionate love

intimacy + commitment

68

fatuous love

passion + commitment

69

consummate love

intimacy + passion + commitment

70

marital trends

cohabiting adults are less satisfied, have higher rates of divorce
marriage rates are declining
more likely to get a divorce after 5-10 years, after 10 it drops substantially

71

remarried adults

often occurs sooner for person who initiated the divorce
often unstable
often get married for financial reasons
bring issues from 1st marriage to 2nd marriage
higher depression rates

72

homosexual couples

myths: very feminine or masculine partner, a ton of sexual partners, like having non-exclusive relationships

73

Gottman — relationship tips

establish love maps
nurture fondness and admiration
turning toward each other, not away
let your partner influence you
solve solvable conflicts
overcoming gridlock
creating shared meaning