Vertical photographs are taken from an aircraft with the optical axis of the camera what?
Nearly vertical as possible
How many degrees are tilted photographs?
Less than one and seldom more than three
Equations for vertical and tilted photographs are developed assuming what?
Truly vertical photographs
Tilted photographs may be analyzed using what?
The relatively simple truly vertical equations
The first assumption in the chapter on vertical photographs is that the photographs are what?
The second assumption in the chapter on vertical photographs is that the photo coordinate axis system has its origin at the what?
Photographic principal point
What is the difference between the photographic principal point and the indicated principal point?
The photographic principal point is calibrated and really in the center of the photo ; the indicated principal point is where the fiducial lines cross
The third assumption in the chapter on vertical photographs are that all photo coordinates have been corrected for what?
Shrinkage, lens distortion, and atmospheric re-fraction distortion
What is map scale?
The ratio of a map distance to the corresponding ground distance
What is the scale of a photograph?
The ratio of the distance on the photograph to the corresponding distance on the ground
Is 1:1000 a larger scale than 1:5000?
Lowercase letters are found on the what?
Uppercase letters are found on the what?
What is The function of a scale factor?
Converting from unitless in AutoCAD to mm on the photo and to get meters on the ground
Arbitrary coordinates can be transformed if at least what?
Two of the points have coordinates in a control system such as state plane
The effect of relief displacement is most apparent on what?
Tall vertical objects but it exists for points on a rolling terrain surface as well
The most critical error source in relief displacement is what?
Photo measurement , particularly relief displacement parameter D
used to get ground coordinates from vertical photo measurements
Scale of a vertical photo over flat terrain
relief displacement formulas