Flashcards in Exam #2 Deck (48):
What are 5 examples of disasters?
Natural or accidental man-made, traumatic or explosions, biological, chemical, conflict based
Natural or accidental man-made disasters
hurricane or a fire
Traumatic or explosive disasters
bomb or a crash
bioterrorism or communicable diseases
All hazards approach
regardless of type of disaster, you will use the same disaster management approach to provide consistency to the addressing situation
What are the phases of the disaster management approach?
Prevention/Mitigation, Preparedness, Response, and Recovery/Rehabilitation
Prevention methods of the disaster management approach
perform a community assessment, identify risks at individual and community level, develop plan for alternative housing, risk reduction activities, plan for evacuation, public policy, community education
Preparedness methods of the disaster management approach
Policy, communication, obtaining equipment and supplies, and training, sheltering, first air, and emergency transport
Response methods of the disaster management approach
Provide both physical and mental health care, triage, management of scarce resources, infection control, continuous monitoring
Recovery/rehab methods of the disaster management approach
continued care and support, monitoring, referrals, assist with re-establishing infrastructure, evaluation that leads to changes in prevention
Vulnerable populations during a disaster
children, limited english proficiency, mentally disabled, pregnant women, homeless persons, home bound elderly, physically disabled
considerations for vulnerable populations during a disaster
basic supplies (at least 3 days), medication, medical equipment, assistive devices, pets, literacy level and language, transportation for evacuation or to shelters, shelters, sheltering in place
What should be done in regards to language and literacy level with vulnerable populations?
try and get out early warning in multiple languages
investigate potential exposures, present work, residence, environmental concerns, past work, activities, resources, educate
Investigate potential exposures
Have you ever felt sick after encountering a chemical or substance? Do you have symptoms that improve when you leave home or work?
Are you exposed to solvents, dust, radiation at work? Do you know where material safety data is at work? Do you wear PPE?
When was your home built? Type of heating? Water type? How do you store chemicals?
What type of industries are by your home? Do you live near a landfill? How do you store chemicals?
Longest job? Ever been in military?
What are your hobbies? Do you burn or melt products? Do you garden/fish? Do you grow your own food? Do you engage in alternative medicine?
How to minimize risk; plan for follow up
What is recommended in an emergency preparedness kit?
water, food, radio, flashlights, batteries, whistle, dust mask, duct tape, moist towelette, garbage bags, plastic ties, wrench or pliers, can opener, local maps, cell phone
How much water should be in an emergency preparedness kit?
1 gallon per day per person
Category A bioterrorism agents
high priority, include organisms and toxins that pose the highest risk to the public and national security; easily spread, high death rates, may cause panic, require special action
Category B bioterrorism agents
moderately easy to spread, result in moderate illness rates and low death rates, require specific enhancements of CDC's lab capacity and enhance disease monitoring
Category C bioterrorism agents
include emerging pathogens that could be engineered for mass spread in the future; easily available, easily produced and spread
inhalation, digestion, person to person, through skin (naturally found in soil)
Anthrax case fatality and incubation period
100%; 1 week to 2 months
Anthrax s/s & treatment
fever, malaise, fatigue, nonproductive cough, body aches, mild chest discomfort; antibiotics, vaccine is only available to military and research lab workers at this time
What is botulism?
a muscle-paralyzing disease caused by toxin made by Clostridium botulinum
naturally occurring, foodborne, infant, wound contact, unnatural, inhaled form
Botulism case fatality and incubation
5 - 10%; typically 12 - 36 hours but can be from 6 hours - 10 days
Botulism s/s and treatment
difficulty swallowing or speaking, dry mouth, double/blurred vision, dilated/nonreactive pupils, drooping eyelids, symmetric and descending weakness, weak RR, no fever; antitoxin, supportive care (NO VACCINE)
What is a plague?
disease caused by yersinia pestis, a bacterium found in rodents and their fleas in many areas of the world
pneumonic rarely occurs naturally, spread person to person by droplets
Plague case fatality and incubation period
5-10%; 1 - 3 days
Plage s/s and treatment
fever, weakness, rapidly developing pneumonia with shortness of breath, chest pain, cough, sometimes bloody or water sputum; antibiotics, vaccine available but efficacy is unknown
las naturally occurring in 1977 and last case ever in 1978
spread person to person; contact and droplet
Smallpox case fatality and incubation
30%; 12 - 14 days
Smallpox s/s and treatment
high fever (101 - 104), malaise, head and body aches, vomiting, severe rash; no treatment, vaccine available
Tularemia (rabbit fever) transmission
insect bites, handling ill or dead animals, lab accidents, airborne, naturally occurring but can live in soil for weeks, not spread to person to person
Rabbit fever case fatality and incubation
2%, 1-14 days
Rabbit fever s/s and treatment
abrupt onset of fever, chills, headache, muscle aches, joint pain, dry cough, progressive weakness; antibiotics
Viral hemorrhagic fevers (ebola, lassa)
used to describe a severe multi-system syndrome
Viral hemorrhagic fever transmission
naturally occuring, multiple types and subtypes, spread person to person
Viral hemorrhagic fevers case fatality and incubation period
40 - 50%; 2 - 21 days