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Flashcards in Exam #2 Deck (48):
1

What are 5 examples of disasters?

Natural or accidental man-made, traumatic or explosions, biological, chemical, conflict based

2

Natural or accidental man-made disasters

hurricane or a fire

3

Traumatic or explosive disasters

bomb or a crash

4

Biological disaster

bioterrorism or communicable diseases

5

All hazards approach

regardless of type of disaster, you will use the same disaster management approach to provide consistency to the addressing situation

6

What are the phases of the disaster management approach?

Prevention/Mitigation, Preparedness, Response, and Recovery/Rehabilitation

7

Prevention methods of the disaster management approach

perform a community assessment, identify risks at individual and community level, develop plan for alternative housing, risk reduction activities, plan for evacuation, public policy, community education

8

Preparedness methods of the disaster management approach

Policy, communication, obtaining equipment and supplies, and training, sheltering, first air, and emergency transport

9

Response methods of the disaster management approach

Provide both physical and mental health care, triage, management of scarce resources, infection control, continuous monitoring

10

Recovery/rehab methods of the disaster management approach

continued care and support, monitoring, referrals, assist with re-establishing infrastructure, evaluation that leads to changes in prevention

11

Vulnerable populations during a disaster

children, limited english proficiency, mentally disabled, pregnant women, homeless persons, home bound elderly, physically disabled

12

considerations for vulnerable populations during a disaster

basic supplies (at least 3 days), medication, medical equipment, assistive devices, pets, literacy level and language, transportation for evacuation or to shelters, shelters, sheltering in place

13

What should be done in regards to language and literacy level with vulnerable populations?

try and get out early warning in multiple languages

14

IPREPARE

investigate potential exposures, present work, residence, environmental concerns, past work, activities, resources, educate

15

Investigate potential exposures

Have you ever felt sick after encountering a chemical or substance? Do you have symptoms that improve when you leave home or work?

16

Present Work

Are you exposed to solvents, dust, radiation at work? Do you know where material safety data is at work? Do you wear PPE?

17

Residence

When was your home built? Type of heating? Water type? How do you store chemicals?

18

Environmental concerns

What type of industries are by your home? Do you live near a landfill? How do you store chemicals?

19

Past work

Longest job? Ever been in military?

20

Activities

What are your hobbies? Do you burn or melt products? Do you garden/fish? Do you grow your own food? Do you engage in alternative medicine?

21

Educate

How to minimize risk; plan for follow up

22

What is recommended in an emergency preparedness kit?

water, food, radio, flashlights, batteries, whistle, dust mask, duct tape, moist towelette, garbage bags, plastic ties, wrench or pliers, can opener, local maps, cell phone

23

How much water should be in an emergency preparedness kit?

1 gallon per day per person

24

Category A bioterrorism agents

high priority, include organisms and toxins that pose the highest risk to the public and national security; easily spread, high death rates, may cause panic, require special action

25

Category B bioterrorism agents

moderately easy to spread, result in moderate illness rates and low death rates, require specific enhancements of CDC's lab capacity and enhance disease monitoring

26

Category C bioterrorism agents

include emerging pathogens that could be engineered for mass spread in the future; easily available, easily produced and spread

27

Anthrax transmission

inhalation, digestion, person to person, through skin (naturally found in soil)

28

Anthrax case fatality and incubation period

100%; 1 week to 2 months

29

Anthrax s/s & treatment

fever, malaise, fatigue, nonproductive cough, body aches, mild chest discomfort; antibiotics, vaccine is only available to military and research lab workers at this time

30

What is botulism?

a muscle-paralyzing disease caused by toxin made by Clostridium botulinum

31

Botulism transmission

naturally occurring, foodborne, infant, wound contact, unnatural, inhaled form

32

Botulism case fatality and incubation

5 - 10%; typically 12 - 36 hours but can be from 6 hours - 10 days

33

Botulism s/s and treatment

difficulty swallowing or speaking, dry mouth, double/blurred vision, dilated/nonreactive pupils, drooping eyelids, symmetric and descending weakness, weak RR, no fever; antitoxin, supportive care (NO VACCINE)

34

What is a plague?

disease caused by yersinia pestis, a bacterium found in rodents and their fleas in many areas of the world

35

Plague transmission

pneumonic rarely occurs naturally, spread person to person by droplets

36

Plague case fatality and incubation period

5-10%; 1 - 3 days

37

Plage s/s and treatment

fever, weakness, rapidly developing pneumonia with shortness of breath, chest pain, cough, sometimes bloody or water sputum; antibiotics, vaccine available but efficacy is unknown

38

Smallpox

las naturally occurring in 1977 and last case ever in 1978

39

Smallpox transmission

spread person to person; contact and droplet

40

Smallpox case fatality and incubation

30%; 12 - 14 days

41

Smallpox s/s and treatment

high fever (101 - 104), malaise, head and body aches, vomiting, severe rash; no treatment, vaccine available

42

Tularemia (rabbit fever) transmission

insect bites, handling ill or dead animals, lab accidents, airborne, naturally occurring but can live in soil for weeks, not spread to person to person

43

Rabbit fever case fatality and incubation

2%, 1-14 days

44

Rabbit fever s/s and treatment

abrupt onset of fever, chills, headache, muscle aches, joint pain, dry cough, progressive weakness; antibiotics

45

Viral hemorrhagic fevers (ebola, lassa)

used to describe a severe multi-system syndrome

46

Viral hemorrhagic fever transmission

naturally occuring, multiple types and subtypes, spread person to person

47

Viral hemorrhagic fevers case fatality and incubation period

40 - 50%; 2 - 21 days

48

Viral hemorrhagic fevers s/s and treatment

fever, severe headache, muscle pain, weakness, fatigue, diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, unexplained bleeding or bruising; supportive (no meds or vaccines)