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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (79):
1

Listening

The process of receiving and responding to others' messages

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Hearing

The process in which sound waves strike the eardrum and cause vibrations that are transmitted to the brain.

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Mindless Listening

Occurs when we react to others' messages automatically and routinely, without much mental investment

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Mindful Listening

Involves giving careful and thoughtful attention and responses to the messages we receive

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Task-oriented Listening

Most concerned with efficiency and accomplishing the job at hand

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Relational Listening

Most concerned with building emotional closeness with others

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Analytical Listening

Emphasizes attending to the full message before coming to judgement

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Critical Listening

Concerned with assessing the quality of the message, focusing on accuracy and consistency

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Attending

A psychological process of selection in what we hear

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Understanding

Attaching meaning to a message

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Listening Fidelity

The degree of congruence between what a listener understands and what the message sender was attempting to communicate.

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Remembering

The number of times the info is heard or repeated, the amount of information received at once, and whether presenting the info can be rehearsed

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Responding

Giving observable feedback

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Silent Listening

Allows you to stay attentive and nonverbally responsive without offering any verbal feedback

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Questioning

Asking for additional information

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Open Questions

Allow for a variety of extended responses

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Closed Questions

Allow only a limited range of answers

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Sincere Questions

Aimed at understanding others

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Counterfeit Questions

Disguised attempts to send a message, not receive one

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Paraphrasing

Providing feedback that restates, in your own words, the message you thought the speaker sent.

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Empathizing

A response style listeners use when they want to show they identify with a speaker

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Supporting

Reveal the listener's solidarity with the speaker's situation.

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Analyzing

The listener offers an interpretation of a speaker's message.

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Evaluating

Appraises the sender's thoughts or behaviors in some way

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Advising

Offering advice when approached with another person's problems

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Nonverbal Communication

Messages expressed by nonlinguistic means

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Emblems

culturally understood substitutes for verbal expressions

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Regulators

Cues that help control verbal interaction

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Kinesics

The study of how people communicate through bodily movements

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Oculesics

The study of how the eyes can communicate

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Haptics

The study of touching

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Proxemics

The study of how communication is affected by the use, organization, and perception of space and distance.

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Personal Space

An invisible bubble each of us carries

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Intimate Distance

Begins with skin contact and ranges out to about 18 inches.

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Personal Distance

Ranges from 18 inches at its closest point to 4 feet at its farthest.

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Social Distance

Ranges from about 4 to 12 feet out

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Public Distance

Running outward from 12 feet

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Territory

A stationary area we claim

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Chronemics

The study of how humans use structure and time.

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Monochronic

Emphasizing punctuality, schedules, and completing one task at a time.

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Polychronic

Flexible schedules in which multiple tasks are pursued at the same time

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Emotional Intelligence

The ability to understand and manage one's own emotions and to be sensitive to others.

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Reappraisal

Rethinking the meaning of emotionally charged events in ways that alter their emotional impact.

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Emotional Labor

Situations in which managing and even suppressing emotions are both appropriate and necessary

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Emotional Contagion

A process where emotions can spread from one person to another

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Facilitative Emotions

Contribute to effective functioning

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Debilitative Emotions

Hinder or prevent effective performance

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Self-talk

The nonvocal, internal monologue that is our process of thinking

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Fallacy of Perfection

A worthwhile communicator should be able to handle any situation with complete confidence and skill.

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Fallacy of Approval

Going to incredible lengths to seek acceptance from others, even to the extent of sacrificing their own principles and happiness.

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Fallacy of Should

The inability to distinguish between what is and what should be.

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Fallacy of Overgeneralization

Occurs when a person bases a belief on a limited amount of evidence.
"She NEVER listens to me"

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Fallacy of Causation

People believe they should do nothing that can hurt or in any way inconvenience others because it will cause undesirable feelings.

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Fallacy of Helplessness

Suggests that forces beyond our control determine satisfaction in life.

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Fallacy of Catastrophic Expectations

The assumption that if something bad can happen, it probably will.

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Social Exchange Theory

Suggests that we seek out people who can give us rewards that are greater than or equal to the costs we encounter in dealing with the relationship.

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Comparison Level

A minimum standard of what behavior is acceptable

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Relational Maintenance

Aimed at keeping relationships operating smoothly and satisfactorily.

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The 10 Stages of Relational Development in Order

Initiating, Experimenting, Intensifying, Integrating, Bonding, Differentiating, Circumscribing, Stagnating, Avoiding, Terminating

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Initiating

To show that you are interested in making contact and to demonstrate that you are a person worth talking to

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Experimenting

The search for common ground

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Intensifying

Communicators increase their amount of contact and their breadth and depth of their self-disclosure

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Integrating

Begin to take on an identity as a social unit

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Bonding

Partners make public gestures to show the world that their relationship exists and that a commitment has been made.

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Differentiating

Partners find themselves needing to reestablish their individual identities.

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Circumscribing

Partners reduce the scope of their contact with each other

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Stagnating

A shell of its former self

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Avoiding

People in a relationship begin to create distance between each other, sometimes under the guise of excuses and sometimes directly.

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Terminating

The relationship ends

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Integration-Separation Dialectic

The conflicting desires for connection and independence

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Connection-Autonomy Dialectic

We want to be close to others, but at the same time we seek independence

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Inclusion-Seclusion Dialectic

A relational pair must reconcile a desire for both involvement with others outside the relationship and time together within the relationship

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Stability-Change Dialectic

Acknowledges that stability is an important need in relationships, but that too much of it can lead to feelings of staleness

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Predictability-Novelty Dialectic

Describes how stability-change dialectic operates within a relationship

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Conventionality-Uniqueness Dialectic

Captures the challenges that people in a relationship face when trying to meet others' expectations while being true to themselves

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Expression-Privacy Dialectic

Along with the drive for intimacy, we have an equally important need to maintain some space between ourselves and others.

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Openness-Closedness Dialectic

The internal struggle between expression and privacy

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Revelation-Concealment Dialectic

The conflict of sharing information or keeping it to yourself

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Metacommunication

The messages that refer to other messages