Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (79):
The process of receiving and responding to others' messages
The process in which sound waves strike the eardrum and cause vibrations that are transmitted to the brain.
Occurs when we react to others' messages automatically and routinely, without much mental investment
Involves giving careful and thoughtful attention and responses to the messages we receive
Most concerned with efficiency and accomplishing the job at hand
Most concerned with building emotional closeness with others
Emphasizes attending to the full message before coming to judgement
Concerned with assessing the quality of the message, focusing on accuracy and consistency
A psychological process of selection in what we hear
Attaching meaning to a message
The degree of congruence between what a listener understands and what the message sender was attempting to communicate.
The number of times the info is heard or repeated, the amount of information received at once, and whether presenting the info can be rehearsed
Giving observable feedback
Allows you to stay attentive and nonverbally responsive without offering any verbal feedback
Asking for additional information
Allow for a variety of extended responses
Allow only a limited range of answers
Aimed at understanding others
Disguised attempts to send a message, not receive one
Providing feedback that restates, in your own words, the message you thought the speaker sent.
A response style listeners use when they want to show they identify with a speaker
Reveal the listener's solidarity with the speaker's situation.
The listener offers an interpretation of a speaker's message.
Appraises the sender's thoughts or behaviors in some way
Offering advice when approached with another person's problems
Messages expressed by nonlinguistic means
culturally understood substitutes for verbal expressions
Cues that help control verbal interaction
The study of how people communicate through bodily movements
The study of how the eyes can communicate
The study of touching
The study of how communication is affected by the use, organization, and perception of space and distance.
An invisible bubble each of us carries
Begins with skin contact and ranges out to about 18 inches.
Ranges from 18 inches at its closest point to 4 feet at its farthest.
Ranges from about 4 to 12 feet out
Running outward from 12 feet
A stationary area we claim
The study of how humans use structure and time.
Emphasizing punctuality, schedules, and completing one task at a time.
Flexible schedules in which multiple tasks are pursued at the same time
The ability to understand and manage one's own emotions and to be sensitive to others.
Rethinking the meaning of emotionally charged events in ways that alter their emotional impact.
Situations in which managing and even suppressing emotions are both appropriate and necessary
A process where emotions can spread from one person to another
Contribute to effective functioning
Hinder or prevent effective performance
The nonvocal, internal monologue that is our process of thinking
Fallacy of Perfection
A worthwhile communicator should be able to handle any situation with complete confidence and skill.
Fallacy of Approval
Going to incredible lengths to seek acceptance from others, even to the extent of sacrificing their own principles and happiness.
Fallacy of Should
The inability to distinguish between what is and what should be.
Fallacy of Overgeneralization
Occurs when a person bases a belief on a limited amount of evidence.
"She NEVER listens to me"
Fallacy of Causation
People believe they should do nothing that can hurt or in any way inconvenience others because it will cause undesirable feelings.
Fallacy of Helplessness
Suggests that forces beyond our control determine satisfaction in life.
Fallacy of Catastrophic Expectations
The assumption that if something bad can happen, it probably will.
Social Exchange Theory
Suggests that we seek out people who can give us rewards that are greater than or equal to the costs we encounter in dealing with the relationship.
A minimum standard of what behavior is acceptable
Aimed at keeping relationships operating smoothly and satisfactorily.
The 10 Stages of Relational Development in Order
Initiating, Experimenting, Intensifying, Integrating, Bonding, Differentiating, Circumscribing, Stagnating, Avoiding, Terminating
To show that you are interested in making contact and to demonstrate that you are a person worth talking to
The search for common ground
Communicators increase their amount of contact and their breadth and depth of their self-disclosure
Begin to take on an identity as a social unit
Partners make public gestures to show the world that their relationship exists and that a commitment has been made.
Partners find themselves needing to reestablish their individual identities.
Partners reduce the scope of their contact with each other
A shell of its former self
People in a relationship begin to create distance between each other, sometimes under the guise of excuses and sometimes directly.
The relationship ends
The conflicting desires for connection and independence
We want to be close to others, but at the same time we seek independence
A relational pair must reconcile a desire for both involvement with others outside the relationship and time together within the relationship
Acknowledges that stability is an important need in relationships, but that too much of it can lead to feelings of staleness
Describes how stability-change dialectic operates within a relationship
Captures the challenges that people in a relationship face when trying to meet others' expectations while being true to themselves
Along with the drive for intimacy, we have an equally important need to maintain some space between ourselves and others.
The internal struggle between expression and privacy
The conflict of sharing information or keeping it to yourself