Exam 2 Flashcards Preview

pscyh > Exam 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (30):
1

Eysenck’s theory of cortical arousal

extraverts have low levels of brain arousal, so they seek out stimulation. While introverts have higher level of internal arousal so they tend to shy away from stimulation social environments

2

BAS

BAS regulates dopamine and our response to rewards. High BAS activity could mean antisocial personality, and weak BAS activity could result in depression

3

BIS

BIS regulates serotonin and provides orienting response to novel situations and also responds to things that are punishing. High BIS activity could result in depression while low BIS activity can result in antisocial personality

4

Sensation-seeking

Our tendency to seek out thrilling activities, take risks, and avoid boredom due to our physiological basis for sensation seeking. Those high on “sensation seeking” have low lvl of internal arousal so they are drawn to novel and exciting experiences.

5

brain asymmetry and affective style

Left and right hemis are specialized and can be measured using EEG’s
• Left frontal hemi= pleasant emotions
• Right frontal hemi= unpleasant emotions.
Dispositionally positive people show greater left frontal EEG activity, while negative people show greater right frontal EEG activity

6

morningness-eveningness

Whether you are a morning or an evening person is a stable characteristic. The difference is in underlying biological rhythms
o Shorter circadian rhythms – morning people
o Longer- evening people

7

Discrimination

Learning to tell the difference between different stimuli, responding only to conditioned stimuli

8

Generalization

Conditioned responses can occur in response to stimuli similar to conditioned stimuli

9

Extinction

when pairing of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli stops

10

Primary reinforcer

Diminishes biological need

11

Secondary Reinforcer

examples: Money, social attention, candy, toys

12

reinforcement

Pos reinforcement- receipt of something pleasant/reward. Adding something good
Neg reinforcement- removal of something adversive (relief). Ex: pain killers take away headache pain.

13

Punishment

Pos punishment- adding punishment. Ex being spanked
Neg punishment- removal of something pleasant. Ex time out- taking away freedom

14

Phobias and therapy

•Avoiding phobic stimulus prevents extinction
•counterconditioning
•Systematic desensitization- counterconditioning involving gradual exposure to increasingly threatening stimuli, paired with relaxation techniques
•Aversion therapy

15

Dollard and Miller-

combined psychoanalytic theory with behaviorism

16

Drives (from Dollard and Miller’s theories)

•cue is a stimulus that indicates appropriate direction an activity should take and determines when and where to respond
•responses are elicited by drive and cues present and are aimed at reducing or eliminating the drive

17

Gestalt psychology

•humans seek meaning in environments and we organize the sensations we receive into meaningful perceptions
•Life space- all internal and external forces, like family, religion, etc
•Field independent people have ability to focus on details despite clutter of background info

18

Locus of control (Rotter)

Beliefs about ones ability to effect outcomes.

19

Outcome expectancy (Rotter)

Persons expectation that their behaviors will be reinforced

20

Reinforcement value (Rotter)

Value of expected reinforcer of the individual

21

Efficacy expectations (self-efficacy)

Belief about how competently one will be able to enact a behavior in a particular situation. Determines if we try to act, how long we persist in our behavior, and how success/failure affects future behaviors. Results from past successes and failures, vicarious experiences (social modeling), emotional reactions, and social persuasion

22

Locus of control and personality difs.

-Internals are achievement oriented and believe performance reflects skill
-Externals believe events are beyond their control and performance reflects chance

23

observational learning

vicarious learning and learning through modeling

24

Learned helplessness (Seligman)

Repeated exposure to unavoidable punishment leads to the acceptance of the unavoidable punishment

25

Schema theory

Shemas are mental structures people use to organize their knowledge about the social world around themes or subjects an that influence info people notice, think about, and remember

26

Self schema

mental structures that people use to organize their knowledge about themselves and that influence what they notice. Think about, and remember about themselves

27

Self reference effect

tendency for people to remember info better if they relate it to themselves

28

Entity schema

abilities seen as unchanging and goal of task performance is to prove ability. Failure results in distress and desire to quit.

29

Incremental schemas

abilities seen as increasing with experience. Goal of task performance is to extend ability, Failure seen as opportunity to increase ability

30

Vicarious conditioning

Seeing person reinforced for behavior increased your tendency to do similar behaviors while seeing person punished for behavior decreases tendency to do behavior